Membrane Structure and Function 1. What is the structure of a biological membrane? How is this different from a simple phospholipid bilayer with respect to composition and permeability? 2. How is simple diffusion different from facilitated diffusion? What types of molecules can diffuse simply across a membrane? 3. What factors drive the diffusion of water across a membrane and what is this process called? What makes a hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solution? How do these different solutions affect the flow of water into or out of a cell? What is the difference between solute and solvent? What is a "concentration gradient"? 4. How do membrane proteins regulate traffic into or out of a cell? 5. Name and describe the three types of transport proteins or "ports". 6. What is the difference between active and passive transport? Which uses an energy source? Does the energy source necessarily have to be ATP (what else can it be)? 7. Explain how an electrical as well as a chemical gradient can drive transport. 8. What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis?