REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM V Nervous System... 1. Identify and describe the types of cells found in...

Nervous System (Chp 11-15)
1. Identify and describe the types of cells found in the nervous system including neurons
(sensory, motor, and association/interneurons), and glia (microglia, astrocytes, ependymal cells,
oligodendrocytes, Schwann cell, and satellite cells). Know the function(s) of each cell in the
nervous system
2. Understand the function of the following neuronal structures: cell body (soma), dendrite, axon,
axon hillock, synaptic terminal/knob, synaptic cleft, myelin sheath, plasma membrane, and nodes
of Ranvier.
3. Understand voltage and potential difference (or potential) with respect to the plasma
membrane. Understand the chemical reasons for the value of the resting potential in neurons (70mV) and the electrochemical forces that act on sodium and potassium. Know the role of K+
leak channels, and the Na+/K+ pump.
4. Describe the three classes of gated ion channels (chemical/ligand gated, voltage-gated and
mechanically gated). Understand the difference between a closed channel an open channel, and
an inactive/desensitized channel.
5. Understand how a graded potential differs from an action potential. Understand the location
along the neuron where graded potentials occur. Know the meaning of resting membrane
potential, depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization.
6. Understand what triggers an action potential (AP). Explain all phases of an AP. Explain how
an AP is propagated along the axon in both myelinated and unmyelinated cells (saltatory versus
continuous conduction).
7. Describe the events at a synapse during neurotransmission including how a neurotransmitter is
released from the presynaptic cell (calcium triggers exocytosis), what determines the effect that a
neurotransmitter will have on the postsynaptic cell, and how the signal is terminated. What is the
mechanism of action of cocaine? SSRIs?
8. Be familiar (do not memorize chemical structures) with the neurotransmitters: ACh, serotonin,
norepinepherine, dopamine, glutamate, and GABA. Understand the different classes of molecules
that can function as neurotransmitters (chemicals, polypeptides, gasses, etc)
9. Know what an IPSP and an EPSP are, how each could be generated, and what each would look
like in ‘trace’ of membrane activity.
Chapter 12
10. Understand and be able to describe how the brain is supported and protected. Understand the
structure and function of the meninges, the ventricles, the functions of CSF and where it is made,
and the blood brain barrier.
11. Locate on a diagram and describe the function of each of the following landmarks of the
-External structures: cerebral hemispheres, cerebral cortex, cerebrum, midbrain, cerebellum,
pons, medulla, central sulcus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus , lateral sulcus, longitudinal
fissure, frontal lobe, parietal lobe , occipital lobe, temporal lobe, primary motor cortex, primary
sensory (somatosensory) cortex, primary visual cortex, primary auditory cortex, association
cortices (in general)
-Internal structures: corpus callosum, basal nuclei, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland,
pineal gland, optic chiasm, lateral ventricles
12. Understand the function of association, projection, and commissural fibers in the brain
13. Understand the differences between the following types of brain injuries: concussion,
contusion, CVA, TIAs.
14. Locate on a diagram and describe the function of each of the following spinal structures:
ventral root, ventral (anterior) horn, dorsal root, dorsal (posterior) horn, spinal nerves, white
matter and gray matter. Compare and contrast an ‘epidural’ to a lumbar (spinal) tap.
15. Know the total number of spinal nerves, and how many originate per region of the spinal
cord. Understand dermatomes, and shingles.
15. Understand the structure and function of the ascending sensory and descending motor
Chapter 13
16. How does an injured peripheral nerve regenerate?
17. Know the sensory and motor functions of the 12 cranial nerves. Know how an injury to each
nerve could be diagnosed in the doctor’s office.
17. Understand a simple, monosynaptic reflex (2 neurons) and more complex, flexor withdrawl,
crossed extensor (3 or more neurons). Give an example of each in the body.
Chapter 14
18. Compare and contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic
nervous system including the origin of the preganglionic neuron, the site of the synapse, the
neurotransmitter used at each synapse. Know the functions of both the sympathetic and
parasympathetic nervous system and the effect of each on the major organs of the body.
Understand: cholinergic receptors, adrenergic receptors (1, 1, 2), dual innervation.
Chp 15
19. Compare and contrast the parts, names, and functions of the eye: cornea, iris, pupil,
lens, ciliary muscles, aqueous humor, vitreous humor, sclera, choroids, retina, optic
20. Differentiate between the two kinds of light-sensing cells of the retina: cones and
21. Explain how the eye focuses light through accommodation and what the shape of the
lens would be if focusing on a near object versus a far object and the difference between
nearsightedness and farsightedness.
22. Name and describe the structures of the ear: external auditory meatus, tympanus,
inner ear, ear bones, auditory tube, cochlea, Organ of Corti, hair cells, auditory nerve.
23. Explain how action potentials are created in hearing.
24. Decribe the names of the structures and the way nerve impulses are created in other
senses: sense of balance (semicircular canals, hair cells, otoliths), taste (taste buds, cells
with microvilli), and olfaction (cells with microvilli, olfactory nerve)