In this file, are highlighted, checked, or specified, sometimes in different colors.

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This file reviews materials in Exercises 1416 & prepares you for the lab practical.
In this file, required structures
are highlighted, checked, or specified,
sometimes in different colors.
by Dr. Shaw, Zoology 251 Lab Coordinator, x7176; [email protected]
1
Ex. 14
Histology of
the nervous system
2
The nervous system
Central nervous
system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous
system (PNS)
Brain
Nerves
Spinal cord
Ganglia
3
Neuroglia of the central nervous system
Capillary
Neurons
Astrocyte
Perivascular feet
Myelin (cut)
Cerebrospinal fluid
Microglia
Ependymal cell
Oligodendrocyte
4
Complete the following table
Types of
glial cells
in the CNS
Functions
Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Ependymal cells
Microglia
Practice
5
A Schwann cell of the PNS
Schwann cell
Axon
Basal lamina
Endoneurium
Nucleus
Neurilemma
Myelin sheath
6
A neuron
Dendrites
Soma (Cell body)
Axon hillock
Axon collateral
Axon
Direction of
signal transmission
Internodes
Node of Ranvier
Myelin sheath
Schwann cell
Axon terminals
7
A neuron; ID the indicated structures
Practice
8
Nissl bodies, stained masses of rough ER
Nissl bodies
Axon hillock
9
Structure of a chemical synapse
Microtubules
of cytoskeleton
Axon of presynaptic neuron
Mitochondria
Synaptic knob
Postsynaptic neuron
Synaptic vesicles with
neurotransmitter
Synaptic cleft
Neurotransmitter
receptor
Postsynaptic neuron
Neurotransmitter
release
10
A chemical synapse; ID the indicated structures
Microtubules
of cytoskeleton
Axon of presynaptic neuron
Postsynaptic neuron
Neurotransmitter
receptor
Postsynaptic neuron
Practice
Neurotransmitter
release
11
Neuromuscular junction (LM)
Motor nerve
fibers
Axon terminal;
Neuromuscular
junction
Muscle fibers
100
m
12
Tract and cross section of the spinal cord
Ganglion (cell bodies
found in the PNS);
Posterior root ganglion
Ascending
tracts
Descending
tracts
White matter (due to
myelination), composed
mostly axons
Tracts (bundles of axons
found in the CNS; carry
signals from one part of
the CNS to another)
Gray matter (clusters
of cell bodies)
13
Anatomy of a ganglion
Spinal cord
Direction of
signal transmission
Posterior root
ganglion
To peripheral
To spinal cord receptors and effectors
Posterior root
ganglion
Anterior root
Somatosensory
neurons
Sensory
pathway
Spinal nerve (mixed
nerve) containing
sensory and motor
fibers
Posterior root
Epineurium
Blood vessels
Anterior root
Sensory (afferent) nerve fibers: carry
nerve impulses toward the CNS
Motor
pathway
Motor (efferent) nerve fibers: carry nerve
impulses away from the CNS
14
Anatomy of a nerve
Spinal nerve
Epineurium
Blood vessels
Fascicle
Perineurium
Endoneurium
15
Anatomy of a nerve; ID the indicated structures
Spinal nerve
Blood vessels
Practice
16
A cross section of a nerve (SEM)
Epineurium
Perineurium
Endoneurium
Nerve
fiber
Fascicle
Blood
vessels
17
Ex. 15
Gross anatomy of the brain
18
Surface anatomy of the brain, superior view
Cerebral
hemispheres
Frontal lobe
Central sulcus
Parietal lobe
Occipital lobe
Longitudinal fissure
19
Surface anatomy of the brain, left lateral view,
with the brainstem in orange
Rostral
Caudal
Central sulcus
Gyri
Cerebrum
Lateral sulcus
Temporal lobe
Cerebellum
Brainstem
Spinal cord
20
Lobes of the cerebrum
Rostral
Caudal
Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Postcentral gyrus
(Primary
somatosensory
cortex)
Precentral Gyrus
(primary motor area)
Parieto-occipital
sulcus
Central
sulcus
Occipital lobe
Insula
Lateral sulcus
Temporal lobe
21
The cerebrum; ID the indicated structures
Rostral
Caudal
Insula
Practice
22
Functional regions of the cerebral cortex
Precentral gyrus (Primary motor
Cortex)
Motor association
area
Broca area (motor
speech region)
Prefrontal
Cortex (complex
reasoning &
personality)
Olfactory
association
area
Postcentral gyrus (Primary
somatosensory cortex
Somatosensory
association area
Primary gustatory
cortex
Wernicke area (speech is
understood here)
Visual association
area
Primary
visual cortex
Primary
auditory cortex
Auditory
association area
23
Functional regions of the cerebral cortex;
ID the indicated structures
Motor association
area
Primary gustatory
cortex
Visual association
area
Primary
visual cortex
Olfactory
association
area
Primary
auditory cortex
Auditory
association area
Practice
24
Ventral view of sheep brain-01
Required structures are checked.









25
Ventral view of sheep brain-02
Required structures are checked.










26
Ventral view of sheep brain-03
Structures in bold and
underlined are required.
1—Cerebrum;
2—Cerebellum;
3—Medulla oblongata;
5—Pons;
6—Infundibulum;
7—Mammillary body;
8—Spinal cord;
9—Optic chiasm;
10—Olfactory bulb
I—Olfactory N.
II—Optic N.
V—Trigeminal N.
Practice
27
Posterior view of sheep brain-01
Required structures are checked.





Midbrain includes superior
and inferior colliculi
28
Posterior view of sheep brain-02
Required structures are checked.





Midbrain (superior
& inferior colliculi)

29
Dorsal view of sheep brain-01
Required structures are checked.




30
Dorsal view of sheep brain-02
Structures in bold and underlined are required. A—Longitudinal fissure;
B– Central sulcus; C—Frontal lobe; D—Parietal lobe; E—Occipital lobe;
F—Temporal lobe; G—Cerebellum; H—Vermis; I—Medulla oblongata
Practice
31
Sagittal view of sheep brain-01
Required structures are checked.



















32
Sagittal view of sheep brain-02
All structures are required except two that are crossed out.


Practice—KEY (next slide)
33
Sagittal view of sheep brain-03
All structures are required except infundibulum & fornix (crossed out).

KEY

34
Ventricles of the human brain, lateral view
Caudal
Rostral
Lateral ventricles
Interventricular
foramen
Third ventricle
Cerebral
aqueduct
Fourth ventricle
Lateral aperture
Median aperture
Central canal
(a) Lateral view
35
Coronal view of sheep brain
Structures in bold & underlined are required. 2—Lateral ventricle; 3—Third
ventricle; 4—Cerebral aqueduct; 6—Pons; 23—Longitudinal fissure; 24—
Cerebral cortex; 25—Cerebral white matter; 26—Choroid plexus
Practice
36
Coronal view of human brain
Cerebrum
Corpus callosum
Lateral ventricle
Thalamus
Internal capsule
Caudate nucleus
Insula
Putamen
Third ventricle
Globus pallidus
Hypothalamus
Subthalamic nucleus
Optic tract
Basal
ganglia/nuclei
Pituitary gland
37
Cerebral cortex histology
Required structures are
checked.

(Triangular shape)

(Triangular shape)
38
Cerebellum histology
A Purkinje
cell (large &
globosely)
A Purkinje
cell’s
dendrites
compressed
into a single
plane like a
flat tree.
39
Ex. 16
Cranial nerves
 12 pairs of peripheral nerves connected to
the base of the brain
 Originate in or near the brain
 Functionally they are sensory (three pairs;
CN I, II, and VIII), motor, or mixed nerves
40
Cranial nerves mnemonic 01
Oh
Once
One
Takes
The
Anatomy
Final,
Very
Good
Vacations
Seem
Heavenly.
Olfactory (I)
Optic (II)
Oculomotor (III)
Trochlear (IV)
Trigeminal (V)
Abducens (VI)
Facial (VII)
Vestibulocochlear (VIII)
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
Vagus (X)
Spinal accessory (XI)
Hypoglossal (XII)
41
Cranial nerves mnemonic 02
Old
Opie
Occasionally
Tries
Trigonometry
And
Feels
Very
Gloomy,
Vague,
And
Hypoactive.
Olfactory (I)
Optic (II)
Oculomotor (III)
Trochlear (IV)
Trigeminal (V)
Abducens (VI)
Facial (VII)
Vestibulocochlear (VIII)
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
Vagus (X)
Accessory (XI)
Hypoglossal (XII)
42
Recite cranial nerves
Mnemonic used
Name the cranial nerves in order
Oh
Once
One
Takes
The
Anatomy
Final,
Very
Good
Vacations
Seem
Heavenly.
Practice
43
43
Cranial nerves, base of the brain
Frontal lobe
Cranial nerves:
Olfactory bulb
(from olfactory nerve, I)
Olfactory tract
Optic chiasm
Temporal lobe
Infundibulum
Optic nerve (II)
Oculomotor nerve (III)
Trochlear nerve (IV)
Trigeminal nerve (V)
Pons
Abducens nerve (VI)
Facial nerve (VII)
Medulla
Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
Cerebellum
Vagus nerve (X)
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
Accessory nerve (XI)
Spinal cord
44
Base of the brain; ID the indicated structures
Frontal lobe
Cranial nerves:
Olfactory tract
Optic chiasm
Temporal lobe
Infundibulum
Cerebellum
Spinal cord
Practice
45
Study Table 16.1 (in the lab manual)–
cranial nerves and their functions
46
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