Algae kelp forest Algae Kingdom Protista Eukaryotic with chloroplasts - autotrophic some are unicellular Multicellular algae are popularly called seaweeds (not plants). No leaves, stems, roots, or flowers. Thallus: the complete body Blades - leaf like, no veins Pneumatocysts – air bladder - gas filled bladder-keeps blade near light. May contain carbon monoxide or other toxic gas. Stipe - stem like Holdfast - looks like root but does not absorb food or H2O. Well developed in kelp. 3 types of Seaweed: 1. Green algae – phylum Chlorophyta about 10% are marine Coralline green algae - contains calcium, helps build coral reef. This is dead man’s fingers green algae 2. Brown algae – Phaeophyta -15,000 species are all marine Kelps food source for many people - sushi, seaweed Macrocytis - common type found in kelp beds or forests Habitat for many organisms 3. Red algae - Phylum Rhodophyta 4,000 species; mostly marine Red color, significant human uses. Some are parasitic and derive all nutrients from the host. Encrusting coralline red algae helps build coral reefs. corallina, a coralline red algae Uses of Algae • Eastern cultures commonly use for food • Western cultures extract polysaccharides thickening, emulsifying and gel. Undigestible, adds bulk to digestive system Carrageenan, algin, agar, alginate • Some brown kelp, Macrocystis can grow a foot a day • Harvested like wheat for human uses. Kelp harvesting ship based out of San Diego Powdered kelp -bakery icings -cooked/instant pudding -candies -fruit juices -jams and jellies -salad dressings -whipped toppings -milk shakes -chocolate milk -cheeses -cottage cheese -ice cream cleaners agar for microbiology laxatives capsules and tablets lotions and creams shampoos toothpaste pastry filling adhesives syrups explosives There are some marine plants that contribute to primary production: like these sea grasses that are true plants. surf grass True plants that live on tropical ocean shores Monera, Protista, and Plantae are all marine producers with Protista contributing the most.