CHAPTER Balance Sheet and Statement of Cash Flows ……..…………………………………………………………... Assets, liabilities, & equity at a specific date. Usefulness of the Balance Sheet helps predict amount & uncertainty of future cash flows 2003 2004 2005 5 useful for analyzing a company’s … ability to get cash as needed ability to pay debts ability to respond to the unexpected Limitations of the Balance Sheet Historical cost is not always . … … but it’s more . than fair value estimates. $3 M D LL Omits items of financial value. Numbers not completely reliable. When reliable estimates cannot be made. Judgment is frequently involved. ? $300 M CLASSIFICATION IN THE BALANCE SHEET Type or expected function land for production vs. land for investment Financial flexibility and liquidity characteristics petty cash vs. bond sinking fund Current Assets Cash restrictions must be noted restricted cash might be non-current Short-term Investments Receivables trade vs. non-trade pledged held-to-maturity trading available-for-sale Current Assets (cont.) Inventories valuation basis disclosed grouped by stage of completion Prepaid Expenses benefits to be received within 1 year Long-Term Investments Securities $1,000 intended to be held for more than a year 8.0% REGISTERED Tangible Fixed Assets not currently used in operations Special Funds Subsidiaries (nonconsolidated) Property, Plant, and Equipment durable nature used in operations disclose accumulated depreciation Intangible Assets lacking physical substance Current Liabilities reasonably expected to be liquidated within the normal business cycle Unearned Revenue Accounts Payable Current Portion Long-Term Bonds $1,000 8.0% $1,000 $1,000 8.0% Due 2003 REGISTERED REGISTERED 8.0% REGISTERED Long-Term Liabilities not expected to be liquidated within a year Bonds Payable $1,000 8.0% $1,000 8.0% REGISTERED REGISTERED Product Warranties Pension Obligations Financial Instruments carrying value and estimated fair value Owners’ Equity Capital Stock par value authorized, issued, and outstanding Additional Paid-In Capital Retained Earnings unappropriated vs. restricted Treasury Stock STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS Operating activities cash receipts from operations cash expenditures from operations Investing activities property, plant, & equipment debt or equity securities Financing activities issuance of stocks or bonds payment of dividends Net Income Cash from Operations Adjust for non-cash expenses add back depreciation expense amortization expense Adjust for non-cash gains and losses add back loss on sale of plant assets subtract gain on sale of securities Adjust for changes in operating assets accounts receivable inventory prepaid expenses Adjust for changes operating liabilities accounts payable unearned revenues Changes in Assets and Liabilities Assets Increase Decrease Liabilities Usefulness of the Statement of Cash Flows “cash is the lifeblood of a company” the statement provides useful information: whether the company is generating sufficient cash through operations reasons for positive or negative cash flow Current cash debt coverage ratio Cash debt coverage ratio = = Net Cash from Operations Average Current Liabilities Net Cash from Operations Average Total Liabilities Free Cash Flow Net cash from operations - Capital expenditures - Dividends Free cash flow discretionary cash flow from operations cash flow from selling investment securities, issuing stock, or taking out a loan doesn’t count!