AFRICA By: Erin Temperini Chapter 36

By: Erin Temperini
Chapter 36
Geography of Africa
Achieving Independence
The Colonial Legacy
-Scholars trace many of Africa’s problems to the colonial experience.
-Europeans introduced new crops and new technologies however Africa gained little
from these industries.
-Europeans undermined Africa’s traditional political systems. They told Africa how to
govern however in other cases Europeans denied educated Africans top jobs in
colonial governments. At independence, colonial powers expected that African
leaders would transform authoritarian colonies into democratic nations.
Health Care
-Western doctors developed many vaccines such as malaria and small pox.
-In the 1950s new hospitals were put up and also produced minimal educational
facilities however Africa was still in a struggle for the modern world.
National Borders
-African nations inherited borders that often caused immense problems. Many
nations were formed with hostile groups which forced them to live together. Leaders
worked to build a sense of unity where none existed.
A Growing Spirt of Nationalism
Impact of World War II
-Nationalism was sweeping over European colonial empires however liberation
would follow this tide. World War II sharpened edges of nationalist movements.
African troops provided support to Allied armies.
The Global Setting
-Many people were reluctant to indulge in combat so they adopted new policies
toward their African colonies. Pressures for independence built up both within and
outside Africa
Nationalist Leaders
-Most nationalist leaders were western educated. They organized political parties
and it mobilized the support for independence. Demonstrations, strikes, and boycotts
were designed to pressure European governments for freedom.
Routes to Freedom
-The first African nation to win freedom was the Gold Coast. Kwame Nkrumah
organized a radical party and caused strikes and boycotts to win concessions from
Britain. Because of his actions riots were apparent and that led to his imprisonment.
In 1957 Gold Coast finally won its independence. After Nkrumah’s imprisonment he
later became the Prime Minister of what was later called Ghana.
-Kenya’s freedom came only with armed struggle. White settlers displaced
African farmers from their job. Jomo Kenyatta was a leading spokesman of
this land and cried out to the whites that this was their land. Radical leaders
turned to guerilla warfare burning farms to scare out the white settlers.
However Kenyatta was arrested and the British forced the Kikuyu, the settlers
from Africa, into concentration camps. After 13,000 Kenyans were killed the
British released Kenyatta and he was marked as a national hero afterwards
named the prime minister and later became a republic.
-Algeria was conquered by France in the 1800s. Muslim Algerian nationalists
set up the National Liberation Front. They turned to gerrila warfare to win their
freedom. Algerian and French troops were grazed in warfare and after
thousdands of French troops were killed they retreated and Algeria won its
The Cold War and Africa
-Cold War left a painful legacy over weaponry. They were captured by tribes
and clans and violence was spread through the lands.
-Africa than created the Organization of African Unity to promote cooperation
among members and sought peaceful settlement. After independence Africa
joined the U.N.
-The UN help Africa with famine and starvation in the Nations.
Programs for development
Seeking Unity and Stability
-After freedom was won many Africans felt their loyalty was to their own group
which started conflict between divisions.
Civil War
Erupted do to liberation leaders monopolizing political and economic powers. One
party systems were made which means a country has a single political party.
Military Rule
-Made to clean up governments. Each country had its own army. Unrest in
countries had to be controlled by military.
-Political and economic problems brought Africa to a crisis. Western Ideas
legalized opposition parties and lifted censorship.
Economic Choices
-Socialism was chosen by independent nations over capitalism. They wanted
control scarce resources and hoped to end foreign economic influence.
-They chose to grow more cash crops to increase export.
-Soaring oil prices hurt developing economies. Oil put the countries into deep
debt. Loan interests caused little development to the countries.
Drought and Famine
-In the 1980s drought led to an outbreak of famine, which lead to millions of people
being refugees. Desertification was prominent because overgrazing was efficient
and most areas which led to spread of desert areas.
-Rain Forests came under attack to promote higher export earnings. Heavy tropical
rains later destroyed it’s fertility which led to the inability of new trees to grow.
-21 million Africans were estimated to have the HIV virus which led to 4 million new
infections a year.
A Closer Look on Other Countries
-Nigeria developed very rapidly because of its rich resources especially Oil.
-It’s fertile farming areas help produce exports such as cocoa and palm oil.
-The 1970s oil boom helped it grow rapidly.
-It set up industries to pay off debts of other countries.
-However local food production fell because they paid for expensive grain instead of
-After the oil prices fell the country went back into debt and the economny almost
-had rich resources and vast tropical forests and also had a good network of
transportation to other countries, however the country was made up of 200 ethnic
groups which later was devised in war.
-Later the UN stop all Civil from happening and formed a peackeeping mission.
Positive Effects
• Literacy rates rose because of schools being setup
• More students entered high schools and universities
trained a new generation of leaders.
• Nations expanded mining and manufacturing due to the
learning of crisis’ and failure.
• Africans made major contributions to global culture with
dances and certain types of music.
• New music included jazz, blues, reggae, and samba
Which conclusion is best supported by this
1.Imprisonment of political dissidents rarely ends opposition to the
2.The United Nations supports punishment for acts of civil
3.Better media coverage would prevent the imprisonment of protesters.
4.Mistreatment of political prisoners often results in their acceptance of
government policies.
Correct Answer Number: 1
2.) In the Republic of South Africa, the primary goal of the African National Congress (ANC) has been to
1.eliminate communist influence
2.rule as the majority political party
3.create a united Africa
4.promote homeland areas for Blacks
Correct Answer Number: 2
Explanation: The African National Congress is composed of South Africa blacks who are the majority
people in South Africa, but have been denied participation in the government by the minority white
population. The ANC has sought to become the ruling party in South Africa for some time.
3.)In the 1980’s, global concern for Blacks in the Republic of South Africa led many nations to
1.impose economic sanctions on South Africa
2.demand that Whites return to their European homelands
3.sent troops to South Africa policies of Apartheid
Correct Answer Number: 1
Explanation: One of the many tools other nations used to end Apartheid was economic boycotts of
South African products and services.
4.)A major problem currently facing Africa is the
1. continuation of attacks from neighboring Zimbabwe
2. move toward the creation of a theocratic state
3. struggle for power between different groups within South Africa’s black majority
4. continued international economic embargo against South Africa
Correct Answer Number: 3
Explanation: Rival groups within Africa’s majority black population continue to contend for
control of the country.
5.)Which statement best characterizes the period of apartheid in South Africa?
the majority of the population had the right to vote
the Boers attempted to conquer Nigeria
many racist ideas of the ruling minority were adopted into laws
French was declared the official language of the nation
Correct Answer Number: 3
Explanation: Apartheid was a series of laws that segregated and discriminated against the
majority black population of South Africa. This policy was started and upheld by the
minority white population who held all governmental power.