Physical Properties of Matter

Physical Properties of Matter Review
Mixtures may be separated by physical means (particle size, boiling pt. density etc)
Phases of matter
Solid – particles close, regular pattern definite shape and volume
Liquid – particles close no regular pattern, no definite shape definite volume
Gases – particles spread no definite shape or volume
Energy – exothermic energy given off/ endothermic energy absorbed
Energy measured in joules
Heat always flows from hot to cold
Measuring energy during change of temperature q=mct c water is 4.18j/g
Measuring energy change during fusion (melting) q=mhf hf water is 334j/g
Measuring energy change during vaporization (boiling) q=mhv hv water is 2260j/g
Temperature = average kinetic energy
Kelvin temperature = Celsius + 273 one degree kelvin = one degree Celsius
Heating/Cooling Curves
Plateaus are phase changes (melting and boiling in heating curve, condensation and
freezing in cooling curve) Potential energy rising in heating curve falling in cooling
curve. Kinetic energy stays the same
Diagonals are phases of matter. Kinetic energy rising in heating curve falling in cooling
curve. Potential energy stays the same.
Solid to Liquid (melting fusion) and Liquid to Gas(vaporization, boiling) are endothermic
Gas to Liquid (condensation) and Liquid to Solid (freezing) are exothermic
Sublimation Solid to Gas (carbon dioxide and Iodine)
Kinetic Molecular Theory (Ideal Gas) Gases particle size negligible, Particles move
randomly in straight lines, No attractive forces between particles, No energy (elastic)
Gases most Ideal in High Temperature/Low Pressure Hydrogen and Helium most ideal
Boyles law (inversely proportional) P1V1 =P2V2 (constant temperature)
Charles law (directly proportional) V1/T1 = V2/T2 (constant pressure) temp must be in
Kelvin. Together combined gas law PV/T =PV/T temp must be in Kelvin
Standard temp and pressure 0C or 273K and 1atm or 101.3Kpa