Test Three

Geography 1001: test 3 Study Guide
Chapters 5, 9, & 10
Mr. Naumann
1. Terms to know and be able to explain Chapter 9:
a. Monoculture (in agriculture)
b. Intensive rice cultivation
c. Mixed farming
d. Large-scale commercial grain production
e. Plantations
f. Transhumance
g. Agribusiness
2. Terms to know and be able to explain Chapter 5:
a. Natural resource
b. Cartel
c. Temperature inversion
3. Terms to know and be able to explain Chapter 10:
a. Primate city
b. Site
c. Situation
d. Leapfrogging
e. Gentrification
f. CBD
4. When ranchers sell cattle, where do they often go before going to the slaughter
5. What are the characteristics of Mediterranean agriculture?
6. How does the value added by manufacturing principle apply to dairying?
7. In Eastern Europe, the former Soviet republics, and China, what land ownership
policy or practice has done the most for increasing production?
8. What is the most important distinction for dividing the world into agricultural
9. Why do unique agricultural practices arise in particular regions?
10. Mediterranean agriculture, shifting cultivation, and pastoral nomadism are all
forms of which of the two major divisions of agriculture?
11. Which type of agriculture is found primarily in developing countries?
12. Shifting cultivation is most commonly found in which climate region?
13. What is the most important reason why most people in North China grow crops
other than wet rice?
14. The type of agriculture practiced on a commercial farm depends on which
factors or practices?
15. . According to the von Thünen model, for what reasons are market-oriented
gardens and milk producers were located in the first ring?
16. The United States, Russia, France, and Canada are the four large-scale
producers of what type of crop?
17. What events occurred in the world since Thomas Malthus’s theory was first
published to cause people to take it less seriously?
18. Of al the domesticated animals, which is the most efficient transformer of grain
into edible meat?
19. The estimated undernourished 500 million people on earth (1991) could be fed if
their homelands did what?
20. Nomadic herding (pastoral nomadism) is most likely to occur in what kinds of
countries (conditions)?
21. On a USA map, be able to match these agricultural regions to the appropriate
parts of the map: Mediterranean Agriculture, Cotton Belt, Winter Wheat Belt,
Corn Belt.
22. What are the three large countries with coal reserves that will last a long time?
23. Which part of the world has the greatest proved oil reserves in the world? -- be
able to locate it on a world map.
24. The Native Americans of the southeastern U.S. formerly placed a high value on
yaupon, a species of holly used in ritual. Which factor was most important in
making yaupon a valuable resource to them?
25. . If the supply of a mineral is reduced due to excessive mining for it, what will
happen in that mining industry?
26. How does the NIMBY phenomenon affect the landfills for trash in the US?
27. What is the main energy resource available for industry in the U.S. and Canada?
28. What are some of the unconventional sources of oil?
29. What are the pluses and minuses of coal as an energy source?
30. What part of the electricity in Europe is produced by nuclear power?
31. What are the pluses and minuses of hydroelectric power?
32. Which are the major atmospheric pollutants?
33. Which elements of a society contribute to the definition of a natural resource?
34. Applying the principle of supply and demand, what is likely to be true of wheat in
Saudi Arabia?
35. Which business practices are important in stabilizing resources prices and
limiting problems caused by resource scarcity?
36. How is hydrothermal energy formed or utilized?
37. Considering oil:
a. What actually happens when it is burned?
b. When and how was it created?
c. Humans place it in what category of resources?
38. In most developing countries, the largest proportion of energy is supplied
through what means?
39. For electric generation in the USA, what is the main energy resource?
40. What is the most common energy source for home use in the USA, especially
for heat and hot water?
41. Nearly all transportation systems rely on which energy source?
42. The US is the leading producer of which energy fuel?
43. North America and Europe account for nearly what portion of the energy
44. What were the results of the oil crisis of the 1970s?
45. Where would a newly discovered conventional oil reserve most likely be found
46. Sulfur oxides are a major component of acid rain; they come primarily from the
burning of what?
47. What is the best potential source of energy for the world’s energy needs in the
48. Smog is created by chemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere involving
N0X, sunlight, and what?
49. The presence in water of what indicates the degree of health of a stream or
50. What is the leading consumer and polluter of water in the USA?
51. What positive roles do forests play in the ecosystem?
52. What strategy can maintain the productivity of a resource even as it is being
53. What critical resource is an important type of ingredient in almost all plastics?
54. Most of the forest land that has disappeared from Earth over the last few
centuries was due to what cause?
55. A city manufactures appliances largely to be shipped out of the city and sold
elsewhere. In what sector of the economy does this activity fit?
56. Describe the structure of an urban hierarchy.
57. Which urban model best describes the contemporary expansion of American
metropolitan areas?
58. Due to their modification of the atmosphere, cities have been referred to as
59. What is the distinguishing characteristic of a garden city?
60. Brasilia is described as what type of city other than a forward capital city?
61. Describe the typical layout and structure of Latin American cities.
62. What is the term for the process whereby an increasing percentage of people
live in an urban area?
63. Define the location of the first megalopolis in the world to be identified as that
type of conurbation.
64. What is the area of the city where
retail and office activities are
clustered called?
65. Why are land values high in the
66. Since so few people live in the
CBD, urban areas are
characterized by a high degree of
67. Why were people attracted to
move to the suburbs in the USA?
68. What are the benefits of public
69. In the diagram to the right, which
part would correspond most
nearly to the CBD of the St. Louis
metropolitan area? Clayton?
70. Which urban settlement model does the diagram on page 3 best illustrate?
71. What did the interstate highway system built by the federal government
contribute to and how did it change American cities?
72. What is the region to which any city provides services and upon which it draws
for its needs called?
73. When several cities grow and merge together into vast urban areas, what are
they called?
74. In regard to urban areas, what does the term “incorporation” mean?
75. What is meant by the term “nonpoint pollution”? Give two examples.
76. It has been said that recycling has grown too fast in the USA. Explain.
77. Explain the major difference between European cities and American cities.
78. Explain why areas of wild (natural) vegetation must be maintained for the future
of agriculture in the world.
79. Explain the difference among subsistence (similar to traditional), commercial
(market), and planned (command) economies on the basis of how the basic
economic questions are answered.
80. What are the important controversies surrounding genetically modified plants
and animals? Use examples.
81. Explain what aquaculture is, why it would be beneficial to develop, and how it
can help increase world food supplies.
82. Explain the concept of sustained yield and its relevance to the resource needs of
the world.
83. Explain why slash-and-burn agriculture, which people from developed countries
often view as “primitive,” may be the kind best suited for food production in the
84. Explain, with numerous examples, why the political realities of the St. Louis
metropolitan area may be detrimental to the growth and development of that
metropolitan area.
85. Explain how China has maintained soil fertility and productivity for thousands of
years while in the U.S. and other parts of the world we hear about soil depletion,
desertification, and the loss of topsoil.
86. React to this statement: The development of many megalopolis (plural for
megalopolis) in the U.S. has made our system of state boundaries obsolete and
counter productive.
87. Explain the difference between conservation and preservation of resources.
88. Explain why efficiency an important key to providing resources for the future.
89. How is pollution prevention different from pollution control? Which is preferable
– explain why.
90. Explain the risks involved for farmers in most developing countries in changing
from traditional farming to using new “improved” hybrid seeds.
91. Explain the concept of “urban ore” or “producing wealth from waste.” Use