Afghanistan/Pakistan Historical Background Ethnic Communities of Afghanistan Timeline of Afghan/Pakistan History 1839 British in the form of the East India Company invade Afghanistan, install descendant of former shah. 1842 British force in Afghanistan annihilated. 1868 Russians reach the border of northern Afghanistan. 1873 treaty between Russia and Britain establish Afghanistan as a buffer state. 1876 Britain occupies Quetta. 1878 Russia provokes Britain into a 2nd Afghan invasion. 1880 British leave. 1947 Britain grants independence to India and the country is partitioned between India and Pakistan. The Values of Pakhtunwali/Pukhtunwali/Pashtunwali Badal – Vengeance. Tora – Courage. Melmastia – Hospitality. Nanawatee – Generosity to a defeated enemy supplicating for peace. Teega or Kanray - Heeding the voice of the jirga. Tarboorwali - cousin rivalry. Tor – Upholding female honor.