climate – the patterns of weather that occur over long periods of time
scientific method – organized and logical steps to solve a problem
experiment – a procedure or series of steps that is carried out according to certain guidelines to test a hypothesis
control group – a group that serves as a standard of comparison with another group that is identical except for one factor
controlled experiment – an experiment that contains a control
accuracy – the closeness of a measurement or a set of measurements to the accepted value
precision – the exactness of a measurement or the closeness of a set of measurements
error – an expression of the amount of imprecision or variation in a set of measurements
confidence interval – describes the range of values for a set percentage of measurements
model – a description, representation or imitation of an object, system, process or concept
scientific law – a general statement that explains how the natural world behaves under certain conditions and for which no
exceptions have been found
Earth science – the scientific study of Earth and the universe around it
geology – the scientific study of the origin, history and structure of Earth and the processes that shape Earth
oceanography – the scientific study of the ocean, including the properties and movements of ocean water, the characteristics
of ocean water and the organisms that live in the ocean
meteorology – the scientific study of Earth’s atmosphere, especially in relation to weather and climate
astronomy – the scientific study of the universe
observation – the process of obtaining information by using the senses; the information obtained by using the senses
hypothesis – an idea or explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested
independent variable – in an experiment, the factor that is deliberately manipulated
dependent variable – in an experiment, the factor that changes as a result of manipulation of one or more other factors
peer review – the process in which experts in a given field examine the results and conclusion of a scientist’s study before
that study is accepted for publication
theory – the explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observation, experimentation and reasoning; that is supported
by a large quantity of evidence; and that does not conflict with any existing experimental results or observations