Name _____________________________________________________ Period ________________ Date __________________________ Chapter 19 Test Review 1. Describe the classification of bacteria by domain and kingdom. 2. Make a Venn diagram to compare and contrast Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. Include each of the following in the correct places on the diagram: a. More closely related to eukaryotes f. Gram + and Gram – b. Peptidoglycan in cell wall g. Domain Bacteria c. Cell wall h. Domain Archaea d. Live in harsh environments i. Prokaryotic e. Found everywhere j. No nucleus 3. Draw a typical bacterium and label the following: a. Pili e. Capsule b. Nucleoid region f. Cell membrane c. Ribosomes g. Flagella d. Cell wall 4. What is an endospore and why might it form? 5. Sketch the following bacterial shapes: a. Coccus b. Bacillus c. Spirillus 6. Explain how peptidoglycan differentiates types of bacteria. 7. What is the significance of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria? 8. Define each of the following: a. Photoautotrophs c. Photoheterotrophs b. Chemoautotrophs d. Chemoheterotrophs 9. Describe the environment in which the following types of bacteria would live: a. Facultative b. Obligate c. Obligate anaerobes aerobes anaerobes 10. Describe reproduction in bacteria. 11. What is conjugation? How does it provide for genetic diversity in bacteria? 12. Give 5 ways that bacteria are useful. 13. Give 2 ways that bacteria are harmful to cells. 14. Explain how each of the following affect bacteria: a. Antibiotics c. Disinfectants b. Sterilization d. Vaccines 15. Describe the structure of a typical virus. 16. How do viruses reproduce? 17. Compare and contrast the lytic and lysogenic cycles (in detail!). 18. What is a bacteriophage? 19. What is a vaccine? 20. Describe what is meant when viruses are described as being specific. 21. What is a retrovirus? 22. How do viruses cause disease? What are some common ways viruses can be transmitted? 23. Describe what happens to a person that is infected with HIV. What is AIDS? 24. What is a host cell and what infects them? 25. How do we prevent and treat viral infections? 26. Compare and contrast bacteria and viruses.