Studi pustaka dan studi lapang diperlukan sebagai studi pendahuluan sebelum proses merancang dilakukan.
Hal yang perlu diperhatikan diantaranya sbb :
Studi pustaka dilakukan pada tipologi judul yang sama atau sejenis
Studi lapang diupayakan pada topik yang sama atau sejenis.
Gunakan metode tertentu pada saat melakukan studi pustaka maupun lapang. Salah satu acuan diantaranya ‘Precedence
in Architecture’. Perhatikan contoh berikut.
1. Studi Pustaka
Studi pustaka :
 Membaca literatur seperti kamus/dictionary, buku standar, karya ilmiah, dll dengan kata kunci: Apartemen, serta Fasilitas
Komersial khususnya fasilitas perbelanjaan. Perhatikan definisi serta pengertian fasilitas tsb.
 Buat kompilasi dan klasifikasi data
2. Bedah Karya
Ambil karya perancangan sejenis yang cukup lengkap (copy dan lampirkan), selanjutnya analisa data/informasi tsb, seperti :
a. Kenali konsumen atau penghuni apartemen (jelaskan status sosial dan ekonominya).
b. Pelajari lay-out bangunan pada tapak, denah, besaran unit, dll
c. Uraikan ragam fasilitas.
d. Data dan informasi lain silakan analisa, buat ringkasan atau skema.
3. Produk-Isian Lembar Tugas (ILT)1
Hasil studi pustaka dan bedah karya agar disusun pada lembar yang telah tersedia (terlampir).
4. Contoh
Berikut contoh kutipan dari Britannica Encyclopaedia-2002 dengan topik Apartemen dan Shopping Area, coba perhatikan
dan pahami, buat ringkasan dan lengkapi dengan pustaka lainnya.
Apartment house
also called apartment block, or block of flats building containing more than one dwelling unit, most of which are
designed for domestic use, but sometimes including shops and other nonresidential features. Apartment buildings
have existed for centuries. In the great cities of the Roman Empire, because of urban congestion, the individual
house, or domus, had given way in early imperial times to the communal dwelling, or insula (q.v.), except for the
residences of the very wealthy. Four stories were common, and six-, seven-, or eight-story buildings were
occasionally constructed. Another type of apartment existed in Europe in the Middle Ages, consisting of a great
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house or mansion, part of which was subdivided into smaller sets of rooms in order to house the servants and
other retainers of an important person. In contrast to these “apartments,” which were simply personal suites within
great houses, the apartment house as it is known today first appeared in Paris and other large European cities in
the 18th century, when tall blocks of flats for middle-class tenants began appearing. In the typical Parisian
apartment building, the size of the apartments (and the financial means of the tenants) decreased with each
successive story in a four- or five-story building.By the mid-19th century, large numbers of inexpensive apartment
houses were under construction to house swelling numbers of industrial labourers in cities and towns across
Europe and in the United States. These buildings were often incredibly shabby, poorly designed, unsanitary, and
cramped. The typical New York City apartment, or tenement, a type first constructed in the 1830s, consisted of
apartments popularly known as railroad flats because the narrow rooms were arranged end-to-end in a row like
boxcars. Indeed, few low-cost apartment buildings erected in Europe or America before 1918 were designed for
either comfort or style. In many European cities, however, particularly in Paris and Vienna, the second half of the
19th century witnessed great progress in the design of apartments for the upper-middle class and the rich.The
modern large apartment building emerged in the early 20th century with the incorporation of elevators, central
heating, and other conveniences that could be shared in common by a building's tenants. Apartments for the wellto-do began to offer other amenities such as leisure facilities, delivery and laundry services, and communal dining
rooms and gardens. The multistory apartment house continued to grow in importance as crowding and rising land
values in cities made one-family homes less and less practicable in parts of many cities. Much governmentsubsidized, or public, housing has taken the form of apartment buildings, particularly for the urban elderly and
working classes or those living in poverty. Apartment-block towers also were erected in large numbers in the
Soviet Union and other countries where housing construction was the responsibility of the state.Since World War
II the demand for apartment housing has continued to grow as a result of continued urbanization. The mid- or
high-rise apartment complex has become a fixture of the skylines of most of the world's cities, and the two- or
three-story “walk-up” apartment also remains popular in somewhat less built-up urban areas.The most common
form of occupancy of apartment houses has been on a rental basis. However, multiple ownership of units on a
single site has become much more common in the 20th century. Such ownership can take the form of
cooperatives or condominiums. In a cooperative, all the occupants of a building own the structure in common;
cooperative housing is much more common in parts of Europe than it is in the United States. A condominium
denotes the individual ownership of one dwelling unit in an apartment house or other multidwelling building. The
increasing popularity of condominiums in the United States and elsewhere is based largely on the fact that, unlike
members of a cooperative, condominium owners are not financially interdependent and can mortgage their
property.Copyright © 1994-2002 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc._
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Shopping Area/Shopping Center
also called shopping mall, or shopping plaza 20th-century adaptation of the historical marketplace, with
accommodation made for automobiles. A shopping centre is a collection of independent retail stores, services,
and a parking area conceived, constructed, and maintained by a management firm as a unit. Shopping centres
may also contain restaurants, banks, theatres, professional offices, service stations, and other
establishments.Aspects considered by planners when a shopping centre is to be built include feasibility of the site
in terms of the community's ability to support a centre; adequate vehicular access; and size, access, and
topography of the site, as well as availability of utilities, zoning laws, and land use in the immediate area.
Economic conditions of the area, the sociology of the region, and local commercial competition and attitudes
determine the size of centre that can be supported and the kind of stores acceptable to a given locale.Shopping
centres are generally of neighbourhood, community, or regional scope. The smallest type, the neighbourhood
centre, usually has a supermarket as a focus, with daily convenience shops such as a drugstore, shoe repair,
laundry, and dry cleaner accompanying it. Such a centre can usually serve 2,500 to 40,000 people within a sixminute drive.The community shopping centre contains all of the above-mentioned services in addition to a
medium-sized department store or variety store, which acts, with the supermarket, as a focus. Wearing apparel,
appliance sales, and repair stores are also found here. This centre will normally serve 40,000 to 150,000
people.The regional shopping centre provides a full range of shopping services comparable to those found in a
small central business district. It is built around at least one full-size department store and often several; specialty
shops and boutiques are numerous, and there are usually several restaurants and perhaps a motion-picture
theatre. Services for the immediate day-to-day needs are minimized. It will serve as many as 150,000 or even
400,000 or more people. On larger sites motels, medical centres, or office buildings may also be provided.Carparking facilities are a major consideration in shopping-centre design. The size and scope of the centre, the type
of tenant, and the economics of the area partially determine parking needs, but it has been found that a ratio of
5.5 parking spaces per 1,000 square feet of leasable space is usually adequate. Access to the lots must be broad
and easy enough to avoid traffic jams. On hilly sites the use of parking and service decks apart from the main
consumer level is often advantageous.Pedestrian and vehicular circulation within the centre are prime design
considerations and should be kept physically separate as much as possible. Exceptions to this rule are the
satellite placement of auto-accessory stores, movie theatres, and drive-in banks. The first unified shopping mall,
Country Club Plaza, founded by the J.C. Nichols Company, opened near Kansas City, Mo., in 1922. The first
enclosed mall opened near Minneapolis, Minn., in 1956. In the 1980s there developed “megamalls,” such as the
West Edmonton Mall in Alberta, Can. (opened in 1981), which contained not only more than 800 stores vending
everything from footwear to automobiles but also restaurants, a hotel, an amusement park, a miniature-golf
course, a church, a “water park” for sunbathing and surfing, a zoo, a 438-foot-long lake, and, scattered about,
more than 500 kinds of trees.Copyright © 1994-2002 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc._
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Apartement: Beberapa unit hunian yang disusun vertical dengan
beberapa fasilitas yang tersedia di dalamnya sebagai pendukung
dan dikelola oleh pengelola yang ditunjuk oleh owner
Standard / Besaran Unit / Fasilitas
-Type “A” , luas 70 m2
Fasilitas : 2 kamar tidur, ruang duduk, ruang makan, pantry, 1 kamar
mandi / WC, 1 kamar pembantu + kamar mandi / WC.
-Type “B”, luas 67 m2
Fasilitas : 2 kamar tidur, ruang duduk, ruang makan, pantry, 1 kamar
mandi / WC.
-Type “C”, luas 57 m2
Fasilitas : 2 kamar tidur, ruang duduk, ruang makan, pantry, 1 kamar
mandi / WC.
-Type “D”, luas 88 m2
Fasilitas : 1 kamar tidur utama. 2 kamar tidur anak, ruang duduk,
ruang makan, pantry, 1 kamar mandi utama, 1 kamar mandi anak, 1
kamar pembantu + kamar mandi / WC.
Penjelasan Karakter Penghuni
Karakter penghuni yang ada di apartement ini mayoritas golongan
menengah ke atas karena harga termurah per unit mencapai ratusan
juta rupiah dengan fasilitas yang cukup komplit sebagai sebuah
Penjelasan konsep rancangan
Apartement ini dirancang dengan konsep modern, tampak bangunan
terlihat sangat menarik dengan façade yang diolah sedemikian rupa
hingga tercipta sebuah bangunan yang menjadi daya tarik dan
memiliki nilai jual yang tinggi
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Ground floor dari apartement ini sebagian
besarny digunakan sebagai area parker, selain
itu ada juga. Lobby utama dan lobby lift untuk
penghuni yang posisinya berada di sisi kiri dan
kanan bangunan ini. Di lantai ini juga terdapat
area loading dock yang berada di kedua sisi
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Unit ini dinamakan type “Platinum” yang
merupakan type paling besar dengan fasilitas :
kamar tidur utama + Kamar mandi / WC, 2 kamar
tidur anak, ruang makan + pantry, ruang duduk
keluarga, kamar mandi / WC anak, Kamar
pembantu + kamar mandi dan jemur.
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