Document 15063099

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Matakuliah
Tahun
: M0734-Business Process Reenginering
: 2010
The Development of BPR
Pertemuan 7
The Development of BPR
3
People and Technology Development Phase :
Why ?
What ?
How ?
Outputs
Risks
People and Technology
Development Phase
4
Why ?
People Development Phase
At the end of the day, it is people that will make processes
function effectively and efficiently, no matter how much they
are automated. If you do not get the people ‘on board’ with the
project and new processes, then they will find a way to ensure
that the processes either do not work, or do not work
efficiently
Technology Development Phase
To develop and implement an Automated BPM Solution that
provide sufficient flexibility to meet business changes and
cater for the frequent changes of the business processes
People and Technology Development Phase addresses different
aspects of the solution development, and they need to be executed in
parallel
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People Development
What ?
Processes
• Get the processes
efficient and effective
and adding value to
the organization
strategy
Structure
• Get the roles and
structure right, or as
close to right as you
can, to support the
new processes
People
• Only after the
processes and
structure steps have
been addressed and
implemented can you
evaluate their
performance
… if you put a good performance against a bad system, the system will win
almost every time
(Keen, 1997 : 65)
Even if the organization has their structure optimized, people are the ones
who execute the processes and make things happen. Without them, you have
nothing.
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Technology Development
What ?
Integration of internal systems (business apps)
Automation of business processes
Collaboration with external entities
Smith and Fingar, 2002
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How ?
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Step 1 :
Communications
Keep people involved and informed
Expect the following questions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is proposed?
How will it be completed?
How will it affect me?
What input will I have into the outcomes?
What if I do not like the outcomes?
Will I keep my job with the new technology in place?
What new skills will I need to adapt with the new technology?
How will my job change with the new technology?
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People Development – Step 2.1, 3.1, 4.1 :
People Strategy, Activity Definition, and Role Redesign
People Strategy
• Coordination with HR, Worker Union, Management to get approvals and buyin from the organization members
Activity Definition
• Based on the tasks created/re-designed during Improvement phase
• Activity is further broken-down into individual tasks performed by individual
roles within the organization
Role Redesign
• Grouping of activities into generic roles
• Maybe iterative process as feedback and discussions will affect the grouping
• After roles have been defined, role definitions can be produced :
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People Development – Step 2.1, 3.1, 4.1 :
People Strategy, Activity Definition, and Role Redesign
RASCI model :
Responsible – Own the activity
Accountable – Approves the activity
Support – Can provide resources and information to support the activity
Consult – Has information required to complete the activity
Inform – Must be notified of the activity and its result, but need not be consulted
•
•
•
•
Activity and role measurements
Generic Role description
Generic description
Performance measurements Role
Workgroup
Role
Redesign
and
definition
Redesign
and
definition
Activity
Definition
Individual
Task
Individual
Task
Activity
Definition
Individual
Task
Individual
Task
Individual
Task
Activity
Definition
Individual
Task
Individual
Task
Individual
Task
Individual
Task
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People Development – Step 2.1, 3.1, 4.1 :
People Strategy, Activity Definition, and Role Redesign
RASCI model
People Development – Step 5.1 :
Performance Management and Measurements
Start with a few measures and keep it simple, use Capacity Planning from
Elaboration Phase as reference so performance targets can be kept realistic
After roles and activities have been designed, set performance measures
Make sure people understand their roles and rationale behind performance
measurements
Management needs to listen to process executors for suggestions for process
improvements
It’s appropriate for management to say ‘no’ to suggestions, but make sure the people
understand why the answer is ‘no’
Use performance measurements as a means of coaching and enhancing
performance, improving the decision-making ability, of management and the people
“since people don’t do what you expect but what you inspect … you need to create a way
to measure results”
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Louis Gerstner, 2002
People Development – Step 5.1 :
Performance Management and Measurements
Pyramid of Performance Targets
Sample throughput and service targets
(reproduced with the permission of MPM Group Pty Ltd, trading as TouchPoint Process Management Services)
14
People Development – Step 6.1 :
People Core Capability Gap Analysis
Update and Finalize People Capability Matrix
Analyze the Gap between current capability and
expected capability
The gap can be closed by training or providing onthe-job coaching and providing sufficient time to
allow for attitudes and behavior changes
15
People Development – Step 6.1 :
People Core Capability Gap Analysis
Process Performance Report
(reproduced with the permission of MPM Group Pty Ltd, trading as TouchPoint Process Management Services)
16
People Development – Step 7.1 :
Organizational Structure
Organization Structure needs to ensure that :
• The proposed new structure is designed to support the organization strategy
and process goals;
• Process gaps between departments are minimized
The Organizational Chart should :
•
•
•
•
Minimize departmental interfaces
Maximize process effectiveness and efficiency
Minimize the layers of management
Most importantly, maximize clarity
There is no one right solution for an organization’s
structure; it will depend upon the requirements and
circumstances of each organization
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Technology Development – Step 2.2 :
Business Process Orchestration
Adopt the selected standard and model the business process
using selected BPM Solution in Technology Foundation Phase
• BPMN (Business Process Management Notation)
• This is notation standard (i.e. a set of icons and graphics) for modeling business
processes
• XPDL
• This is a business process definition language that describes an entire process, and
can be used to integrate BPM components for process modeling, execution and
control
• BPEL (Business Process Execution Language)
• This is currently the main execution language that orchestrates business processes
using web services, and allows various BPM applications to be linked and
integrated
Develop/Configure BPM Solution Orchestration Components :
• Presentation Layer of the solution to the user
• Processing Layer containing manual and automated tasks
• Integration Layer to other systems and databases containing the data
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Technology Development – Step 3.2 :
Integration with Business Applications
Refer to Service Registry, Canonical Data Model and Service
Portfolio from Technology Foundation Phase
• Externalize/Service Enable Business Application
• Build necessary data conversion and mapping routines to connect Business
Application Data with the Canonical Data Model
• Connect the externalized service into Enterprise Service Bus
• Integrate and establish Business Rules Framework
• Register the service with the Service Registry
• Invoke the service within the Business Process orchestration
SOA Governance
• Maintained and monitored Service Level Agreements from each Business
Application
• Service network and service dependencies
• Proper management of service registries
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Technology Development – Step 4.2 :
Develop Presentation Layer of the Solution
Familiar UI – is it a view that end-users are familiar with, and
does it have a logical look and feel (i.e. is it similar to
existing/other systems or does it have a logical flow of the
screens)?
Role centric UI – different types of users will have different
needs and ways of interacting with the systems (for example,
employees, controllers, managers, etc.)
Technology and framework – used when developing
presentation layer, e.g. Enterprise Portal, Web 2.0, MVC
Framework
Breakdown development priorities using MoSCoW approach
from DSDM (Dynamic Systems Development Method)
•
•
•
•
Must have
Should have if at all possible
Could have this if it does not affect anything else
Won’t have (in this release), but would like to have it later
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Technology Development – Step 5.2 :
Solution Testing
Unit test
• Verifies a particular activity or step of the automated BPM solution meets the requirements
established in the design specifications
Integration test
• Verifies a function or an aspect of the automated BPM solution meet the requirements established in
the design specifications
System test
• Verifies the automated BPM solution or its components meets the requirement established in the
functional and quality specifications
Functional Acceptance Test
• Simulates the operational environment to the greatest possible extent
• Verifies the automated BPM solution meets the functional and quality requirement as specified in the
functional requirements
User Acceptance Test (UAT)
• Verifies automated BPM solution meets the business requirements
Regression test
• Checks all part of the system still function correctly after the implementation or modification of an
automated BPM solution
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Technology Development – Step 5.2 :
Solution Testing
Determine test objectives
Determine and write test strategy
Write a test plan
Write and keep various test cases for regression testing
Execute the testing
Review the test results and decide on how to proceed
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People and Technology Development – Step 8.1, 6.2 :
Develop Training
Training Analysis
•
•
•
•
A training needs analysis
A training media analysis
A training material development
Just-in-time training vehicles – it is no use training people well ahead of time and then having them
forget the lessons learned
How is the training to be delivered?
• By professional trainers?
• By trained ‘super’ users
• Via a pilot(s) training session
Who should be involved in developing the training?
•
•
•
•
Project team?
HR and training department?
Process staff representatives (those who execute the processes)?
Management?
What format should be used?
•
•
•
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Classroom?
On-line computer-based self-study?
On-the-job training?
Paper-based self-study?
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Outputs
 Dissection and Amalgamation of new processes
into activities
 Redesigned role descriptions and goals
 Performance management and measures for
appropriate roles
 A plan and set of tasks to enable the organization
to ‘transform’ from where it currently is to where
it needs to be
 A new process-based organization structure








A high-level overview of the solution
Detailed business requirements
Business Application Connectivity Documentation
Service Portfolio
Software Specification and Design
Software Development and Configuration
Software test scripts and results
Integration test scripts and results
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People Development – Risks
Risks
Mitigation Strategy
Lack of Communication
Communication falls into the responsibility of the project manager,
necessary
Judging performance before
structural issues have been
Define process, new roles, understand and update people capacity
targeted and create performance measures and implement them
Capacity Planning is not
Include it into project plan and convince stakeholders and
Performance targets are not
understaffed
Refer to Capacity Planning for this information
People are not consulted or
performance measurement
Make sure to include people in establishing performance
to accept the changes and use them
HR is not engaged
HR must be engaged from the beginning. Allocate responsibility to
as possible to HR of their required time involvement
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Technology Development – Risks
Risks
Mitigation Strategy
Developed solution does not
requirement
Ensure that the stakeholders are involved throughout the project and
the decisions made and the consequences, and work on the basis of
architecture and business case
Some application work,
solution does not work
There may be failed interfaces or connectivity. Make sure all
thoroughly tested
Testing finds too many errors
Ensure that the requirements (functional and technical design) are
used as bases for the development , as well as preparing the test
26
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