Chapter 13

Building Information Systems
System Development and
Organizational Change
1. Automation
 Increases efficiency
 Replaces manual tasks
2. Rationalization of procedures
 Streamlines standard operating procedures
 Often found in programs for making continuous
quality improvements
Total quality management (TQM)
Six sigma
System Dev and Org Change (cont)
3. Business process redesign
 Analyze, simplify, and redesign business
 Reorganize workflow, combine steps, eliminate
4. Paradigm shifts
 Rethink nature of business
 Define new business model
 Change nature of organization
Business Process Management
 Business process management (BPM) (pages 491-492)
 Variety of tools, methodologies to analyze, design, optimize
 Used by firms to manage business process redesign
 Steps in BPM
1. Identify processes for change
2. Analyze existing processes
3. Design the new process
4. Implement the new process
5. Continuous measurement
Business Process Management
 Variety of tools for BPM, to
 Identify and document existing processes
Identify inefficiencies
 Create models of improved processes
 Capture and enforce business rules for performing
 Integrate existing systems to support process
 Verify that new processes have improved
 Measure impact of process changes on key business
performance indicators
Systems Development
 The activities that go into producing an information
 Structured/distinct activities
 Broken down into six core activities:
Systems Development (cont)
 Analysis – analysis of a problem that the firm tries to solve with
an information system
 Feasibility study
 Information requirements
Systems design – how the system will fulfill the information
Programming – translate into the software code
Testing – test different features of the system
Unit testing (test programs separately)
System testing (test the functioning of the info system as a whole)
Acceptance testing (final certification that the system is ready to
be used)
Test plan (all the preparations for the series of tests)
Systems Development (cont)
 Conversion – changing from the old system to the new
 Parallel – old and new run together
 Direct cutover (or plunge) – replace the old system with new
 Pilot – introduce to a small are of the organization
 Phased – introduce in stages
Provide detailed documentation to show how the system works
 Production and maintenance
 Production – installed and conversion complete
 Maintenance – changes to correct errors, etc
Structured Methodologies
 Structured methodologies – techniques step-by-step;
modeling; separate data from processes
 Data flow diagram: (pg 502)
 Primary tool for representing system’s component processes and
flow of data between them
 Offers logical graphic model of information flow
 High-level and lower-level diagrams can be used to break
processes down into successive layers of detail
 Data dictionary: contents
 Process specifications: transformation between lower levels
 Structure chart: top down; shows each level of design/relationship
to other levels
Object-Oriented Methodologies
 Object-oriented development (page 505)
 Object is basic unit of systems analysis and design
 Combines data and the processes that operate on those data
 Data encapsulated in object can be accessed and modified only by
operations, or methods, associated with that object
 Object-oriented modeling based on concepts of class and
Objects belong to a certain class and have features of that
Computer Aided Software Engineering
 Software tools to automate development and reduce
repetitive work, including
Graphics facilities for producing charts and diagrams
Screen and report generators, reporting facilities
Analysis and checking tools
Data dictionaries
Code and documentation generators
Other Systems-Building
 Traditional systems development life-cycle (7 phases)
 Prototyping (building rapidly and inexpensively a working
preliminary working version for the end user)
Identify; develop; use; revise and enhance
 End-user development (developed by end user with little or no
formal assistance; fourth-generation languages enable users to
create reports or develop software) – pg 509
 Application software packages (purchased from external site;
can customize; when use this company does not have direct
 Outsourcing (offshore – in another country not close; nearshore
– country that borders; onshore – same country)
Digital Firm Application Development
 Rapid Application Development (RAD) – creating
workable systems in a short amount of time
Joint Application Design (JAD) – accelerate; bring
end users and IT specialists together
Agile Development – rapid delivery of working
software; break large pieces into small
Component – based and Web Services – assembling
and integrating existing software components
Web Services – use reusable code; based on a
universal set of standards
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