Appendix Contents

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Appendix

Contents

Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Marin Acculturation Scale – Revised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Asian Values Scale (AVS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (EAVS-AA) . . . . . . . . . . .

The Acculturation Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Asian American Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (AAMAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stephenson Multigroup Acculturation Scale (SMAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents Scale

(AHIMSA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Multicultural Acculturation Scale (MAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Adult Scale Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

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7

11

17

19

20

21

30

Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA)

Richard M. Suinn, Ph.D.

Instructions : The questions that follow are for the purpose of collecting information about your historical background as well as more recent behaviors that may be related to your cultural identity. Choose the one answer that best describes you.

1. What language can you speak?

1. Asian only (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc.).

2. Mostly Asian, some English.

3. Asian and English about equally well (bilingual).

4. Mostly English, some Asian.

5. Only English.

2. What language do you prefer?

1. Asian only (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc.).

2. Mostly Asian, some English.

N.-H. Trinh et al. (eds.), Handbook of Mental Health and Acculturation in Asian

American Families , Current Clinical Psychiatry, DOI 10.1007/978-1-60327-437-1_12,

Ó

Humana Press, a part of Springer Science

þ

Business Media, LLC 2009

1

2 Appendix

3. Asian and English about equally well (bilingual).

4. Mostly English, some Asian.

5. Only English.

3. How do you identify yourself?

1. Oriental

2. Asian

3. Asian American

4. Chinese American, Japanese American, Korean American, etc.

5. American

4. Which identification does (did) your mother use?

1. Oriental

2. Asian

3. Asian American

4. Chinese American, Japanese American, Korean American, etc.

5. American

5. Which identification does (did) your father use?

1. Oriental

2. Asian

3. Asian American

4. Chinese American, Japanese American, Korean American, etc.

5. American

6. What was the ethnic origin of the friends and peers you had, as a child up to age 6?

1. Almost exclusively Asians, Asian Americans, Orientals.

2. Mostly Asians, Asian Americans, Orientals.

3. About equally Asian groups and Anglo groups.

4. Mostly Anglos, Blacks, Hispanics, or other non-Asian ethnic groups.

5. Almost exclusively Anglos, Blacks, Hispanics, or other non-Asian ethnic groups.

7. What was the ethnic origin of the friends and peers you had, as a child from age 6 to 18?

1. Almost exclusively Asians, Asian Americans, Orientals.

2. Mostly Asians, Asian Americans, Orientals.

3. About equally Asian groups and Anglo groups.

4. Mostly Anglos, Blacks, Hispanics, or other non-Asian ethnic groups.

5. Almost exclusively Anglos, Blacks, Hispanics, or other non-Asian ethnic groups.

8. Whom do you now associate within the community?

1. Almost exclusively Asians, Asian Americans, Orientals.

2. Mostly Asians, Asian Americans, Orientals.

Appendix 3

3. About equally Asian groups and Anglo groups.

4. Mostly Anglos, Blacks, Hispanics, or other non-Asian ethnic groups.

5. Almost exclusively Anglos, Blacks, Hispanics, or other non-Asian ethnic groups.

9. If you could pick, whom would you prefer to associate with in the community?

1. Almost exclusively Asians, Asian Americans, Orientals.

2. Mostly Asians, Asian Americans, Orientals.

3. About equally Asian groups and Anglo groups.

4. Mostly Anglos, Blacks, Hispanics, or other non-Asian ethnic groups.

5. Almost exclusively Anglos, Blacks, Hispanics, or other non-Asian ethnic groups.

10. What is your music preference?

1. Only Asian music (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese)

2. Mostly Asian

3. Equally Asian and English

4. Mostly English

5. English only

11. What is your movie preference?

1. Asian-language movies only

2. Asian-language movies mostly

3. Equally Asian and English English-language movies

4. Mostly English-language movies only

5. English-language movies only

12. What generation are you? (circle the generation that best applies to you:)

1. First generation = I was born in Asia or country other than the United

States

2. Second generation = I was born in the United States, either parent was born in Asia or country other than the United States

3. Third generation = I was born in the United States, both parents were born in the United States, and all grandparents born in Asia or country other than the United States

4. Fourth generation = I was born in the United States, both parents were born in the United States, and at least one grandparent born in Asia or country other than the United States and one grandparent born in the

United States

5. Fifth generation = I was born in the United States, both parents were born in the United States, and all grandparents also born in the United

States

6. Don’t know what generation best fits since I lack some information.

4 Appendix

13. Where were you raised?

1. In Asia only

2. Mostly in Asia, some in the United States

3. Equally in Asia and the United States

4. Mostly in the United States, some in Asia

5. In the United States only

14. What contact have you had with Asia?

1. Raised 1 year or more in Asia

2. Lived for less than 1 year in Asia

3. Occasional visits to Asia

4. Occasional communications (letters, phone calls, etc.) with people in Asia

5. No exposure or communications with people in Asia

15. What is your food preference at home?

1. Exclusively Asian food

2. Mostly Asian food, some American

3. About equally Asian and American

4. Mostly American food

5. Exclusively American food

16. What is your food preference in restaurants?

1. Exclusively Asian food

2. Mostly Asian food, some American

3. About equally Asian and American

4. Mostly American food

5. Exclusively American food

17. Do you

1. read only an Asian language;

2. read an Asian language better than English;

3. read both Asian and English equally well;

4. read English better than an Asian language; and

5. read only English.

18. Do you

1. write only an Asian language;

2. write an Asian language better than English;

3. write both Asian and English equally well;

4. write English better than an Asian language; and

5. write only English.

19. If you consider yourself a member of the Asian group (Oriental, Asian,

Asian American, Chinese American, etc., whatever term you prefer), how much pride do you have in this group?

Appendix 5

1. Extremely proud

2. Moderately proud

3. Little proud

4. No pride but do not feel negative toward group

5. No pride but do feel negative toward group

20. How would you rate yourself?

1. Very Asian

2. Mostly Asian

3. Bicultural

4. Mostly Westernized

5. Very Westernized

21. Do you participate in Asian occasions, holidays, traditions, etc.?

1. Nearly all

2. Most of them

3. Some of them

4. A few of them

5. None at all

22. Rate yourself on how much you believe in Asian values (e.g., about marriage, families, education, work):

1

(do not believe)

2 3 4 5

(strongly believe in Asian values)

23. Rate yourself on how much you believe in American (Western) values:

1

(do not believe)

2 3 4 5

(strongly believe in American values)

24. Rate yourself on how well you fit when with other Asians of the same ethnicity:

1

(do not fit)

2 3 4 5

(fit very well)

25. Rate yourself on how well you fit when with other Americans who are non-

Asian (Westerners):

1

(do not fit)

2 3 4 5

(fit very well)

26. There are many different ways in which people think of themselves.

Which ONE of the following most closely describes how you view yourself?

1. I consider myself basically an Asian person (e.g., Chinese, Japanese,

Korean, Vietnamese). Even though I live and work in America, I still view myself basically as an Asian person.

6 Appendix

2. I consider myself basically as an American. Even though I have an Asian background and characteristics, I still view myself basically as an

American.

3. I consider myself as an Asian American, although deep down I always know I am an Asian.

4. I consider myself as an Asian American, although deep down I view myself as an American first.

5. I consider myself as an Asian American. I have both Asian and

American characteristics, and I view myself as a blend of both.

Appendix

Marin Acculturation Scale – Revised

Please respond as you find best that describes your preferences. There is no right or wrong answers.

1=Only Chinese

2=More Chinese than English

3=Both Equally

4=More English than Chinese

5=Only English.

7

Language preference

1. In what language do you think?

2. In general, what language(s) do you read and speak?

3. What was the language(s) you used as a child?

4. If you could choose your children’s friends, you want them to be – Chinese or American

5. What language(s) do you usually speak at home?

6. What language(s) do you usually speak with your friends?

Language preferred for media

7. In what language(s) are the TV programs you usually watch?

8. In what language(s) are the radio programs you usually listen to?

9. In general, in what languages are the movies you prefer to watch and listen to?

Ethnic social relations

10. Your close friends are – Chinese or American

11. Your prefer going to social gatherings/parties at which people are – Chinese or American

12. The persons you visit or who visit you are – Chinese or American

Source : Gupta, R. & Yick, A. (2001). Preliminary validation of the acculturation scale on

Chinese Americans.

J Soc Work Res Eval.

1 (2), Table 3, p. 51. Reproduced with the permission of Springer Publishing Company, LLC, New York, NY.

8

Asian Values Scale (AVS)

Appendix

Bryan S. K. Kim, Donald R. Atkinson, and Peggy Yang

Instructions: Use the scale below to indicate the extent to which you agree with the value expressed in each statement.

1 = Strongly disagree

2 = Moderately disagree

3 = Mildly disagree

4 = Neither Agree nor disagree

5 = Mildly agree

6 = Moderately agree

7 = Strongly agree

——1.

——2.

——3.

——4.

——5.

——6.

——7.

——8.

Educational failure does not bring shame to the family.

One should not deviate from familial and social norms.

Children should not place their parents in retirement homes.

One need not focus all energies on one’s studies.

One should be discouraged from talking about one’s accomplishments.

One should not be boastful.

Younger persons should be able to confront their elders.

When one receives a gift, one should reciprocate with a gift of equal or

——9.

greater value.

One need not follow one’s family’s and the society’s norms.

——10. One need not achieve academically in order to make one’s parents proud.

——11. One need not minimize or depreciate one’s own achievements.

——12. One should consider the needs of others before considering one’s own needs.

——13. Educational and career achievements need not be one’s top priority.

——14. One should think about one’s group before oneself.

——15. One should be able to question a person in an authority position.

——16. Modesty is an important quality for a person.

——17. One’s achievements should be viewed as family’s achievements.

——18. Elders may not have more wisdom than younger persons.

——19. One should avoid bringing displeasure to one’s ancestors.

——20. One need not conform to one’s family’s and the society’s expectations.

——21. One should have sufficient inner resources to resolve emotional problems.

——22. Parental love should be implicitly understood and not openly expressed.

——23. The worst thing one can do is to bring disgrace to one’s family reputation.

——24. One need not remain reserved and tranquil.

Appendix 9

——25. The ability to control one’s emotions is a sign of strength.

——26. One should be humble and modest.

——27. Family’s reputation is not the primary social concern.

——28. One need not be able to resolve psychological problems on one’s own.

——29. Following familial and social expectations are important.

——30. One should not inconvenience others.

——31. Occupational failure does not bring shame to the family.

——32. One need not follow the role expectations (gender, family hierarchy) of one’s family.

——33. One should not make waves.

——34. Children need not take care of their parents when the parents become unable to take care of themselves.

——35. One need not control one’s expression of emotions.

——36. One’s family need not be the main source of trust and dependence.

Note . Permission to use the Asian Values Scale must be obtained from Bryan

S. K. Kim.

Source : Kim, B., Atkinson, D. & Yang, P. (1999). The Asian Values Scale:

Development, factor analysis, validation, and reliability.

J Counsel Psychol , 46,

Table 1, pp. 345, 346. Copyright #

Association. Adapted with permission.

1999 by the American Psychological

10

The European American Values Scale for Asian Americans

(EAVS-AA)

Appendix

Maren M. Wolfe, Peggy H. Yang, Eunice P. Wong and Donald R. Atkinson

Instructions

: Select the number from the response scale below that best indicates your level of agreement with each item. Write this number in the space before each item.

Response scale

Strongly disagree

1 2

Moderately disagree

Mildly disagree

3 4

Neither agree nor disagree

Mildly agree

5 6

Moderately disagree

Strongly agree

7

——1.

——2.

——3.

I think it is fine for an unmarried woman to have a child.

Abortion should be legal if the mother’s health is in danger.

Sometimes, it is necessary for the government to stifle individual

——4.

——5.

——6.

——7.

——8.

——9.

development.

You can do anything you put your mind to.

A woman who is living alone should be able to have children.

I am confident in my ability to handle most situations.

It is important to me to serve as a model for others.

The idea that one spouse does all the housework is outdated.

Single women should not have children and raise them alone.

——10. I am rarely unsure about how I should behave.

——11. I prefer not to take on responsibility unless I must.

——12. I do not like to serve as a model for others.

——13. Good relationships are built on mutual respect.

——14. If a pregnant woman wanted an abortion because her health was at risk, I could not support the abortion.

——15. Having the chance to achieve is not important to me in a job.

——16. I would like to have a job where I could serve as a model for others.

——17. Abortion is okay when the mother’s health is at risk.

——18. Children should learn to be tolerant of others.

Source : Wolfe, M., Yang, P., Wong, E. & Atkinson, D. (2001). Design and development of the European American values scale for Asian Americans.

Cultur Diver Ethnic Minor Psychol , 7. Table 1, p. 279. Copyright # 2001 by the American Psychological Association. Adapted with permission.

Appendix

The Acculturation Scale

11

Below are statements about the Vietnamese and American (mainstream Anglo

American) culture. Please tell us how strongly you agree or disagree with each statement. There are no right or wrong or good or bad answers, so please be honest. We just want to know what you think. Use the following scale to circle the number that best applies to you. Answer all the items.

1 = Strongly disagree

2 = Disagree

3 = (Neither agree nor disagree) neutral

4 = Agree

5 = Strongly agree

1. I would like to watch more

American TV programs or movies

2. I would like to listen to more Vietnamese music.

3. I would like to retain (or keep) the Vietnamese way of life.

4. I would like to belong to

American groups or clubs.

5. It is all right for boys/girls to choose their own career.

6. I want to speak English at home.

7. Children should follow their parents’ wishes about dating

(when and whom to date).

8. I dress like students who just came from Vietnam

(e.g., traditional

Vietnamese clothes).

9. If I had the opportunity, I would like to travel throughout America.

10. I like to eat Vietnamese food.

11. It is okay to question parents’ authority/ judgment/decisions.

12. I dress mostly like other

American students.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Strongly disagree

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Disagree

2

(Neither agree or disagree) neutral

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

Agree

4

Strongly agree

5

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

(continued)

13. I would like to watch more

Vietnamese TV programs or movies.

14. It is important for

Vietnamese people to get up to date information about Vietnam.

15. I believe that I should do what is best for me.

16. I think it is important to learn about Vietnamese history and traditions.

17. If I had the opportunity, I would like to travel throughout Vietnam.

18. Children should follow their parents ’ wishes about choosing a career.

19. It is important for

Vietnamese people to get up to date information about America.

20. I think daughters should live by themselves as soon as they finish school.

21. I would like to belong to

Vietnamese groups or clubs.

22. Most of my closest friends are Americans.

23. I feel at ease with American people.

24. Family matters should be handled democratically – where kids can also have a say.

25. As far as behaviors and values, I am ‘‘American’’.

26. I think Vietnamese people should date or marry other

Vietnamese.

27. It is important for family members to be with outsiders (neighbors, friends etc.).

28. I want to adopt (or take up) the American way of life.

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Strongly disagree

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Disagree

2

(Neither agree or disagree) neutral

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

Agree

4

Strongly agree

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

Appendix

(continued)

29. It is the children’s responsibility to take care of their elders (parents, etc.).

30. My room is decorated in

Vietnamese style.

31. I enjoy going to American gatherings/parties.

32. Family members should prefer to be with each other.

33. It is important to me to incorporate American values.

34. I think daughters should live with their parents until they get married.

35. I think it is important to learn about American history and traditions.

36. I think that youthfulness in our society should be greatly valued.

37. It is okay to put one’s elders in nursing homes, if necessary.

38. I like to eat American food.

39. It is important to me to preserve my Vietnamese heritage.

40. I think it is okay if

Vietnamese people date or marry other Americans.

41. Grandparents should have more influence than parents in family matters.

42. I enjoy going to

Vietnamese gatherings/ parties.

43. Children should follow their parents wishes about marriage (when and whom to marry).

44. Girls over the age of 18 should be allowed to move away from home to go to college and/or to take a job

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Strongly disagree

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Disagree

2

(Neither agree or disagree) neutral

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

13

Agree

4

Strongly agree

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

14 Appendix

(continued)

45. I would like to listen to more American music.

46. Because of their age, wisdom, and experience, I think elders deserve respect.

47. As far as behaviors and values, I am ‘‘Vietnamese’’.

48. My room is decorated in

American style.

49. Parents always know what is best.

50. I believe that my actions should be based mainly on the well -being of the family. (I should do what is best for my family).

51. Most of my closest friends are Vietnamese.

52. It is all right for boys/girls over the age of 18 to decide when and whom to marry.

53. When a boy/girl reaches the age of 16, it is all right for him/her to decide when and whom to date.

54. I feel at ease with

Vietnamese people.

55. The oldest girl in the family should help her family take care of the house and the younger children whether she wants to or not.

56. I want to speak the

Vietnamese at home.

Strongly disagree

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Disagree

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

(Neither agree or disagree) neutral

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

Agree

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

Strongly agree

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

Source : From Huong Nguyen and Alexander von Eve (2002). The Acculturation Scale for

Vietnamese Adolescents (ASVA): A bidimensional perspective.

Int J Behav Dev

, 26(3). Tables

3 and 4, pp. 202, 213. Reproduced with permission from Huong Nguyen Phd. Copyright

International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development (ISSBD), 2002, by permission of Sage Publications Ltd.

Appendix 15

The next questions are a little bit different from those above. So read them carefully. They are about your behaviors —how often you engage in certain activities. Please circle the answer that best fits you: 1 =Never; 2 =Rarely;

3 =Sometimes; 4 =Often; 5 =always

57. How often do you listen to

American music?

58. How often do you watch American movies or TV programs?

59. How often do you go to Vietnamese gatherings/parties?

60. How often do you eat Vietnamese food?

61. How often do you speak English?

62. How often do you try to learn more about the Vietnamese culture

(history, customs, etc.)?

63. How often do you participate in

American groups (sports, hobbies, clubs, etc.)?

64. How often do you read Vietnamese newspapers or magazines?

65. How often do you eat American food?

66. How often do you interact with

Vietnamese people?

67. How often do you try to learn about

American culture (history, traditions, customs, etc.)?

68. How often do you hang out with

Vietnamese friends?

69. How often do you read American newspapers or magazines?

70. How often do you participate in

Vietnamese groups (sports, hobbies, clubs, etc.)?

71. How often do you speak the

Vietnamese language?

72. How often do you interact with

American people?

73. How often do you go to American gatherings/parties?

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Never

1

Rarely

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

Sometimes

3

Often

4

Always

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

16 Appendix

(continued)

74. How often do you listen to

Vietnamese music?

75. How often do you watch

Vietnamese movies or TV programs?

76. How often do you hang out with

American friends?

Never

1

1

1

Rarely

2

2

2

Sometimes

3

3

3

Often

4

4

4

Always

5

5

5

Source : From Huong Nguyen and Alexander von Eve (2002). The Acculturation Scale for

Vietnamese Adolescents (ASVA): A bidimensional perspective.

Int J Behav Dev , 26(3). Tables

3 and 4, pp. 202, 213. Reproduced with permission from Huong Nguyen Phd. Copyright

International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development (ISSBD), 2002, by permission of Sage Publications Ltd.

Appendix

Asian American Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (AAMAS)

17

Instructions : Use the scale below to answer the following questions. Please circle the number that best represents your view on each item.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

How well do speak the language of – a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. English?

How well do you of – understand the language a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. English?

How well do you language of – read and write in the a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. English?

How often do you listen to music or look at movies and magazines from a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. the White mainstream groups?

How much do you like the food of – a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. the White mainstream groups?

How often do you eat the food of – a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. the White mainstream groups?

How knowledgeable are you about the history of – a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. the White mainstream groups?

How knowledgeable are you about the culture and traditions of – a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. the White mainstream groups?

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Not very well

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

3

3

3

2

2

2

3

3

3

2

2

2

3

3

3

2

2

2

3

3

3

2

2

2

3

3

3

2

Somewhat

3 4 5

Very well

6

2

2

2

3

3

3

4

4

4

5

5

5

6

6

6

2

2

2

3

3

3

2

2

2

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

5

5

5

6

6

6

5

5

5

6

6

6

5

5

5

6

6

6

18 Appendix

(continued)

Not very well Somewhat

Very well

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

How much do you practice the traditions and keep the holidays of – a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian American cultures?

c. the White mainstream culture?

How much do you identify with – a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. the White mainstream groups?

How much do you feel you have in common with people from – a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. the White mainstream groups?

How much do you interact and associate with people from – a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. the White mainstream groups?

How much would you like to interact and associate with people from – a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. the White mainstream groups?

How proud are you to be part of – a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. the White mainstream groups?

How negative from – do you feel about people a. your own Asian culture of origin?

b. other Asian groups in America?

c. the White mainstream groups?

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

Source : Chung, R., Kim, B., & Abreu, J. (2004). Asian American Multidimensional Acculturation Scale: Development, factor analysis, reliability and validity.

Cultur Diver Ethnic

Minor Psychol , 10, Table 2, pp. 73, 74. Copyright

Association. Adapted with permission.

#

2004 by the American Psychological

Appendix

Stephenson Multigroup Acculturation Scale (SMAS)

19

Below are a number of statements that evaluate changes that occur when people interact with others of different cultures or ethnic groups.

For questions that refer to COUNTRY OF ORIGIN or NATIVE COUN-

TRY, please refer to the country from which your family originally came.

For questions referring to NATIVE LANGUAGE, please refer to the language spoken where your family originally came.

Circle the answer that best matches your response to each statement

False Partly false Partly true True

1. I understand English, but I am not fluent in English.

2. I am informed about current affairs in the United States.

3. I speak my native language with my friends and acquaintances from my country of origin.

4. I have never learned to speak the language of my native country.

5. I feel totally comfortable with (Anglo) American people.

6. I eat traditional foods from my native culture.

7. I have many (Anglo) American acquaintances.

8. I feel comfortable speaking my native language.

9. I am informed about current affairs in my native country.

10. I know how to read and write in my native language.

11. I feel at home in the United States.

12. I attend social functions with people from my native country.

13. I feel accepted by (Anglo) Americans.

14. I speak my native language at home.

15. I regularly read magazines of my ethnic group.

16. I know how to speak my native language.

17. I know how to prepare (Anglo) American foods.

18. I am familiar with the history of my native country.

19. I regularly read an American newspaper.

20. I like to listen to music of my ethnic group.

21. I like to speak my native language.

22. I feel comfortable speaking English.

23. I speak English at home.

24. I speak my native language with my spouse or partner.

25. When I pray, I use my native language.

26. I attend social functions with (Anglo) American people.

27. I think in my native language.

28. I stay in close contact with family members and relatives in my native country.

29. I am familiar with important people in American history.

30. I think in English.

31. I speak English with my spouse or partner.

32. I like to eat American foods.

Copyright (1998) by Margaret Stephenson. This instrument may be reproduced with permission from Margaret Stephenson.

20

Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents Scale (AHIMSA)

Appendix

Many people in the United States have ancestors who came from another country. Families come to the United States at different times. Maybe you and your parents moved to the United States. Maybe your parents came to the

United States when they were kids. Maybe your grandparents’ grandparents were the ones who came to the United States.

Write the name(s) of the country (or countries) that your family came from:

When you think about this country . . .

.

1. I am most comfortable being with people from

2. My best friends are from

3. The people I fit in with best are from

4. My favorite music is from

5. My favorite

TV shows are from

6. The holidays I celebrate are from

7. The food I eat at home is from

8. The way I do things and the way I think about things are from h h h h h h h h

The United

States

The United

States

The United

States

The United

States

The United

States

The United

States

The United

States

The United

States h h h h h h h h

The country my family is from

The country my family is from

The country my family is from

The country my family is from

The country my family is from

The country my family is from

The country my family is from

The country my family is from h h h h h h h h

Both

Both

Both

Both

Both

Both

Both

Both h h h h h h h h

Other/Neither

Other/Neither

Other/Neither

Other/Neither

Other/Neither

Other/Neither

Other/Neither

Other/Neither

Source : Unger, J.B., Gallaher, P., Shakib, S., Ritt-Olson, A., Palmer, P.H., & Johnson, C.A.

(2002). The AHIMSA acculturation scale: A new measure of acculturation for adolescents in a multicultural society.

J Early Adolescence , 22(3). Table 1, p. 239, copyright 2002. Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Inc.

Appendix

Multicultural Acculturation Scale (MAS)

21

Instructions : Please circle the response that is closest to the way that you act or feel right now. Remember, there are no right or wrong answers. We are interested in your personal feelings and opinions. Please do not skip any of the questions. If you are unsure of an answer, please circle your best guess.

1. Which best describes your current use of English?

a. Do not to use English at all.

b. Use English only when need to, to greet neighbors, buy groceries.

c. Use English with people who speak both Vietnamese and English.

d. Use English most of the time, except with elders, children, or those who speak only Vietnamese.

e. Use English almost all the time, even at home with family and friends who speak Vietnamese.

2. Which best describes your current use of Vietnamese?

a. Do not to use Vietnamese at all.

b. Use Vietnamese only when need to, to greet acquaintances, shop in Vietnamese stores.

c. Use Vietnamese with people who speak both Vietnamese and English.

d. Use Vietnamese except at work or with those who speak only English.

e. Use Vietnamese almost all the time, even at home, at work, and with friends.

3. How much are your

Anglo-Americans do?

everyday activities similar to what most

A. Do you usually cook and eat Anglo-American foods in your home?

a. Not at all; do not eat Anglo-American foods.

b. Once a month; only on special occasions.

c. Eat Anglo-American foods about half the time; for breakfast and lunch, but not usually for dinner.

d. Usually eat Anglo-American foods except for special occasions or entertaining.

e. Eat Anglo-American foods for almost every meal and for most special occasions.

4. How much are your everyday activities similar to what most Vietnameses do?

A. Do you usually cook and eat Vietnamese foods in your home?

a. Not at all; do not eat Vietnamese foods.

b. Once a month; only on special occasions.

c. Eat Vietnamese foods about half the time, usually for dinner or have the time to prepare.

d. Usually eat Vietnamese foods except for American holidays or special occasions.

e. Eat Vietnamese foods for almost every meal and even for holidays most special occasions

22 Appendix

B. Do you follow Anglo-American rules of behavior and discipline for your children?

a. Do not use Anglo-American ways of raising children. Children have many rules and duties and are closely supervised.

b. Children have more rules and less freedom than most Anglo-American children.

c. Children are allowed some independence but are more taught more respect than Americans.

d. Children have most of the same privileges and responsibility as their American friends.

e. Children have all the same privileges and rules as their American friends.

B. Do you follow Vietnamese rules of behavior and discipline for your children?

a. Do not use Vietnamese ways of raising children. Children are encouraged to be independent.

b. Do not follow most of the Vietnamese rules as they are very difficult to enforce.

c. Children follow some traditional rules but not others; choose only those which work.

d. Children are taught traditional rules and effort is made to enforce these.

e. Children are raised with traditional rules and are taught to obey and respect their elders.

C. Do you take part in Anglo-American recreational and social activities?

a. Do not take part in Anglo-American sports, social events, or holidays.

b. Take part in a few activities like American holidays or special events.

c. Take part in some Anglo-American activities on a regular basis.

d. Take part in many forms of Anglo-American entertainment and recreation.

e. Take part in all forms of Anglo-American activities at home and in the community.

C. Do you take part in Vietnamese recreational and social activities?

a. Do not take part in Vietnamese events, celebrations, or games.

b. Take part in a few activities, like Vietnamese holidays or special events.

c. Take part in some Vietnamese activities on a regular basis, like shows, martial arts, parties.

d. Take part in many forms of Vietnamese entertainment and recreation.

e. Take part in all types of Vietnamese entertainment and recreation at home and in the community.

5. What is your present job or occupation?

A. How many of the workers in the same type of jobs are Anglo-Americans?

a. None are Anglo-American b. A few are Anglo-American c. Half are Anglo-American d. Most are Anglo-American e. Almost all are Anglo-American

Appendix 23

6. In terms of your present job or occupation . . .

A. How many of the workers in the same type of jobs are of Vietnamese origin?

a. None are of Vietnamese origin b. A few are of Vietnamese origin c. Half are of Vietnamese origin d. Most are of Vietnamese origin e. Almost all are of Vietnamese origin

B. How many of the bosses or supervisors in your workplace are Anglo-

Americans?

a. None are Anglo-American b. A few are Anglo-American c. Half are Anglo-American d. Most are Anglo-American e. Almost all are Anglo-American

B. How many of the bosses or supervisors in your workplace are of Vietnamese origins?

a. None are of Vietnamese origin b. A few are of Vietnamese origin c. Half are of Vietnamese origin d. Most are of Vietnamese origin e. Almost all are of Vietnamese origin

7. How well do you know the history of the United States?

a. Not at all; have never studied.

b. A little; have never studied formally but I am aware of a few historical events.

c. Somewhat; know names of past presidents and major historical events.

d. Well; have studied history in classes.

e. Very well; have read and studied a lot.

8. How familiar are you with the history of your country of origin?

a. Not at all; have never studied.

b. A little; have never studied formally but I am aware of a few historical events.

c. Somewhat; know names of past leaders and major historical events.

d. Well; have studied history in classes.

e. Very well; have read and studied a lot.

9. How many of the families in the neighborhood where you live are Anglo-

Americans?

a. None b. A few c. Half

24 d. Most e. Almost all

Appendix

10. How many of the families in the neighborhood where you live are also of

Vietnamese origin?

a. None b. A few c. Half d. Most e. Almost all

11. Which of the following best describes your friendships with Anglo-

Americans?

a. Have no close friends who are Anglo-Americans.

b. Have a very few Anglo-American friends whom I see a few times a year.

c. Have several close Anglo-American friends.

d. Have many close Anglo-American friends whom I see regularly for social events.

e. Almost all of my friends are Anglo-Americans.

12. How many of your closest friends whom you see on a regular basis are also of Vietnamese origin?

a. Have no close friends who are of Vietnamese origin.

b. Have a very few Vietnamese friends whom I see a few times a year.

c. Have several close Vietnamese friends.

d. Have many close Vietnamese friends whom I see regularly for social events.

e. Almost all of my friends are of Vietnamese origin.

13. Think of your home when you were growing up as a child. How much did your parents do each of the following?

A. Did you usually cook and eat Anglo-American foods in your home?

a. Not at all; did not eat Anglo-American foods.

b. Once a month; only on special occasions.

c. Ate Anglo-American foods about half the time; for breakfast and lunch but not usually for dinner.

d. Usually ate Anglo-American foods except for special occasions or entertaining.

e. Ate Anglo-American foods for almost every meal and for most special occasions.

14. Think of your home when you were growing up as a child. How much did your parents do each of the following?

A. Did you usually cook and eat Vietnamese foods in your home?

a. Not at all; did not eat Vietnamese foods.

b. Once a month; only on special occasions.

Appendix 25 c. Ate Vietnamese foods about half the time, usually for dinner or have the time to prepare.

d. Usually ate Vietnamese foods except for non-Vietnamese holidays or special occasions.

e. Ate Vietnamese foods for almost every meal and even for holidays most special occasions

B. Did your parents follow Anglo-American rules of behavior and discipline?

a. Did not use Anglo-American ways of raising children. As a child, I had many rules and duties and was closely supervised.

b. As a child, I had more rules and less freedom than most Anglo-American children.

c. As a child, I was allowed some independence but was more taught more respect than Americans.

d. As a child I had most of the same privileges and responsibility as American children.

e. As a child, I had all the same privileges and rules as American children.

B. Did your parents follow Vietnamese rules of behavior and discipline?

a. Did not use Vietnamese ways of raising children. As a child, I was encouraged to be independent and outspoken.

b. Did not follow most of the Vietnamese rules as most were very difficult to enforce.

c. As a child, I followed some traditional rules but not others; parents used only those that worked.

d. As a child, I was taught traditional rules and effort was made to enforce these.

e. As a child, I was raised with traditional rules and was taught to obey and respect my elders.

C. As a child, did your family take part in Anglo-American recreational and social activities?

a. Our family did not take part in Anglo-American sports, social events, or holidays.

b. Our family took part in a few activities like American holidays or special events.

c. Our family took part in some Anglo-American activities on a regular basis.

d. Our family took part in many forms of Anglo-American entertainment and recreation.

e. Our family took part in all forms of Anglo-American activities at home and in the community.

C. As a child, did your family take part in Vietnamese recreational and social activities?

a. Our family did not take part in Vietnamese events, celebrations, or games.

b. Our family took part in a few activities, like Vietnamese holidays or special events.

26 Appendix c. Our family took part in some Vietnamese activities on a regular basis, like shows, martial arts, parties.

d. Our family took part in many forms of Vietnamese entertainment and recreation.

e. Our family took part in all types of Vietnamese entertainment and recreation at home and in the community.

15.

A. How much do you listen to Anglo-American style music?

a. Not at all.

b. A little, only with American friends.

c. Sometimes but do not buy American records or tapes.

d. Frequently listen to American music.

e. Listen to and buy American music most of the time.

16.

A. How much do you listen to Vietnamese style music?

a. Not at all.

b. A little, only with Vietnamese friends.

c. Sometimes but do not buy Vietnamese records or tapes.

d. Frequently listen to Vietnamese music.

e. Listen to and purchase Vietnamese music most of the time.

B. How much do you watch Anglo-American shows (TV, videos, movies)?

a. Not at all.

b. A little, only with American friends.

c. Sometimes on TV, but usually do not go to American movies or rent videos.

d. Frequently watch American movies and videos.

e. Watch American movies and videos most of the time.

B. How much do you watch Vietnamese shows (TV, videos, movies)?

a. Not at all.

b. A little; only with Vietnamese friends.

c. Sometimes on TV but usually do not go to Vietnamese movies or rent videos.

d. Frequently watch Vietnamese movies and videos.

e. Watch Vietnamese movies and videos most of the time.

C. How much do you take part in Anglo-American cultural activities, such as local concerts, fireworks, parades, museum shows, art galleries, and local sports events?

a. Not at all.

b. Once or twice year, usually when invited by American friends.

c. Occasionally, with both American and Vietnamese friends.

d. Regularly; make an effort to be informed about American cultural events.

e. Often; will go alone or will invite friends or help organize events.

Appendix 27

C. How much do you take part in Vietnamese cultural activities, such as New year’s and other holiday celebrations, banquets, film showings, association meetings, and informal dinners?

a. Not at all.

b. Once or twice year, usually when invited by relatives or friends.

c. Occasionally, with both American and Vietnamese friends.

d. Regularly; make an effort to be informed about Vietnamese cultural events.

e. Often; will go alone or will invite friends or help organize events.

17. In terms of your own knowledge about the customs and rules, how much difficulty do you feel you (would) have in living in a community in which all the other people were Anglo-Americans?

a. No difficulty.

b. A little difficulty.

c. Some difficulty.

d. Much difficulty.

e. Very much difficulty.

18. In terms of your own knowledge about the customs and rules, how much difficulty do you feel you (would) have in living in a community in which all the other members were of Vietnamese origin?

a. No difficulty.

b. A little difficulty.

c. Some difficulty.

d. Much difficulty.

e. Very much difficulty.

19. In terms of where you are living right now, how much do you feel like you are living in an Anglo-American neighborhood?

a. Not at all.

b. A little.

c. Somewhat.

d. Much.

e. Very much.

20. In terms of where you are living right now, how much do you feel like you are living in a Vietnamese neighborhood?

a. Not at all.

b. A little.

c. Somewhat.

d. Much.

e. Very much.

28 Appendix

21. What is your current religion?

A. How much do you take part in activities sponsored by a religious organization which is mostly Anglo-American?

a. Not at all.

b. Once or twice year, usually with American friends for special events.

c. Occasionally, with both Americans and other Vietnamese.

d. Regularly, more than twice a month with friends or family.

e. Often; will go alone or will invite friends or help organize events.

22.

A. How much do you take part in activities sponsored by a religious organization which is mostly Vietnamese?

a. Not at all.

b. Once or twice year, usually with Vietnamese friends or relatives for special events.

c. Occasionally, with both Americans and other Vietnamese.

d. Regularly, more than twice a month with friends or family.

e. Often; will go alone or will invite friends or help organize events.

B. How similar are your personal religious beliefs to those of most Anglo-

Americans?

a. Religious beliefs are very different from those of most Anglo-Americans.

b. Religious beliefs are somewhat different.

c. Some religious beliefs are similar but some are also very different.

d. Religious beliefs are somewhat similar.

e. Religious beliefs are very similar to those of most Anglo-Americans.

B. How similar are your personal religious beliefs to those of most traditional

Vietnamese?

a. Religious beliefs are very different from those of most traditional

Vietnamese.

b. Religious beliefs are somewhat different.

c. Some religious beliefs are similar but some are also very different.

d. Religious beliefs are somewhat similar.

e. Religious beliefs are very similar to those of most traditional Vietnamese.

23. If asked, what would you call yourself ethnically?

When you think of your ethnic identity, how much of the time do you identify yourself as an ‘‘American’’?

a. Not at all.

b. A little.

c. Somewhat.

d. Much.

e. Very much.

Appendix 29

24. What ‘‘label’’ would you give to a person of your ethnic background who is living in America?

How much of the time do you identify yourself using that label?

a. Not at all.

b. A little.

c. Somewhat.

d. Much.

e. Very much.

30

Adult Scale Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale

Appendix

Fred Beauvais, Ph.D. E.R. Oetting, Ph.D.

The following questions ask how close you are to different cultures. When answering the questions about ‘‘family,’’ think about the family that is most important to you now . How would you define that family? You can include your current family, your family of origin, or both. Answer the questions keeping that definition in mind. You may identify with more than one culture, so please mark all responses that apply to you.

1. Some families have special activities or traditions that take place every year at particular times (such as holiday parties, special meals, religious activities, trips, or visits). How many of these special activities or traditions does your family have that are based on . . .

White American or Anglo culture

Asian or Asian American culture

Mexican American or Spanish culture

Black or African American culture

American Indian culture

Other culture

(

(

(

(

(

(

A lot

)

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

(

Some

)

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

(

A few

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

(

None at all

2. In the future, with your own family, will you do special things together or have special traditions, which are based on . . .

Mexican American or Spanish culture

Asian or Asian American culture

White American or Anglo culture

Black or African American culture

American Indian culture

Other culture

(

(

(

(

(

(

A lot

)

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

(

Some

)

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

(

A few

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

(

None at all

3. Does your family live by or follow the . . .

American Indian way of life

White American or Anglo way of life

Mexican American or Spanish way of life

Black or African American way of life

Asian or Asian American way of life

(

(

(

(

(

A lot

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

Some

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

Not much

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

None at all

Appendix

4. Do you live by or follow the . . .

An Asian or Asian American way of life

White American or Anglo way of life

Mexican American or Spanish way of life

Black or African American way of life

American Indian way of life

(

(

(

(

(

A lot

)

)

)

)

)

31

(

(

(

(

(

Some

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

Not much

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

None at all

5. Is your family a success in the . . .

Black or African American way of life

Mexican American or Spanish way of life

American-Indian way of life

White American or Anglo way of life

Asian or Asian American way of life

(

(

(

(

(

A lot

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

Some

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

Not much

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

None at all

6. Are you a success in the . . .

American Indian way of life

Asian or Asian American way of life

Mexican American or Spanish way of life

Black or African American way of life

White American or Anglo way of life

(

(

(

(

(

A lot

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

Some

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

Not much

)

)

)

)

)

(

(

(

(

(

None at all

Adapted from Oetting, E.R. & Beauvais, F. (1990–1991). Orthogonal cultural identification theory: The cultural identification of minority adolescents.

Int J

Addict , 25, (5A and 6A), 655–685. This scale may be used, for research purpose only, without further permission from the authors.

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