World Civilization-Beginning of Cold War to the Berlin Wall Worksheet Answer the following 44 questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Who emerged as the two most powerful nations after World War II? A. B. What heightened American fears of communism? In 1946, who declared that the Soviets had in a sense trapped the nations of Eastern Europe behind an “iron curtain?” Why were oppressed populations attracted to communism? T/F While the Communist party promised to set up a classless society giving control to the lower class workers, in reality, the party stayed in power and controlling all property and the economy. What was the policy of the United States towards communism that sought to prevent its spread? Who was the U.S. president at the time the above policy started? The policy of containment led to the cold war. How would one define the cold war? T/F The U.S. and other Western nations wished to stop communism from spreading because they saw it as an oppressive form of rule that quashed individual economic and personal freedoms. As part of the policy of containment, Congress approved a plan to provide military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey to help them resist a communist takeover. This plan was known as what? An extension of the above plan came about when Congress approved a plan that provided massive amounts of financial aid to provide food, fuel, and raw materials to help the nations of Europe rebuild their economies, industries, and transportation systems that had been destroyed during World War II. This plan was known as what? Who was the above plan named after? After World War II, four nations each controlled a zone of Germany. Name these four nations. A. B. C. D. After the Western powers announced plans to combine their three sections into the independent nation of West Germany, how did the Soviets respond? In response to the Soviets action, what did President Truman order? In 1949, with East-West tensions rising, the United States joined other Western nations to form what military alliance against the Soviets? (Give the full name.) In response to the above alliance, the Soviets formed what military alliance of Soviet-controlled countries? T/F The nations of NATO considered an attack on one country as an attack on all of them. The advantage of such a policy is that it provides a number of separate nations with greater security. The disadvantage is that it increases the risk of small conflicts becoming large wars involving many nations. After World War II, what were the three aims of the United States in Asia? A. B. C. T/F The U.S. occupied Japan seeking to help the nation rebuild and become more democratic. Under American direction, a new constitution provided for elected representative government, encouraged economic opportunity, and provided Japan with financial aid, yet, left many aspects of Japanese culture intact. Before granting Japanese independence in 1951, who was the American leader during the occupation of Japan? 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. T/F On the advice of George Marshall, the U.S. did not get involved in the civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists in China. Who was the leader of the Nationalists in China? Who was the leader of the Communists in China? What was the outcome of the civil war in China? Where were the Nationalists forced to flee after the Chinese civil war? T/F In 1950, North Korea, which was ruled by a Soviet-installed Communist government, invaded South Korea. UN troops, led by the United States, came to the aid of South Korea to help push the North Koreans back. When UN forces invaded North Korea, Chinese troops entered the conflict to help the Communists. Who was the UN commander of the forces in Korea at the beginning of the conflict? What did President Truman do after the above commander openly criticized the President’s decision not to bomb China? In the Election of 1952, who was the victor after he promised to end the war in Korea? T/F The fighting in Korea continued until 1953, when both sides agreed on a cease-fire that left the country divided in the same way it had been before the war began. Neither side claimed victory. During the cold war period, many Americans’ fears of a communist conspiracy heightened, believing that fellow citizens were communist sympathizers or spies. This outbreak of fear is known as what? Name the U.S. senator who charged that he knew of numerous communist sympathizers within the U.S. government, but hurt his reputation when he did not produce evidence for this claim? The use of indiscriminate, unfounded political accusations to destroy someone’s character became known as what? Who became the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin? What happened in May 1960 that did not help relations between the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.? In his farewell address, President Eisenhower warned against the influence of the defense industry that promoted the production of weapons of destruction. What did he refer to this industry as? In 1959, communism was brought to the doorstep of the U.S. in Cuba. Who was the new communist leader in Cuba? After the U.S. helped in the training of Cuban exiles, they invaded Cuba where in April 1961? T/F The above invasion failed hurting the prestige of the Kennedy administration and strengthened Castro’s power in the world. In October 1962, U.S. officials learned that the Soviet Union had placed nuclear weapons in Cuba. After tense negotiations, what is this event referred to that saw the Soviets agree to remove their weapons after a bold order from President Kennedy? How many U.S. presidents have served since Fidel Castro became the leader of Cuba? What was organized by President Kennedy in 1961 that was to help prevent the spread of communism by improving the quality of life in developing nations? East-West tensions continued to rise in the early 1960s after the Soviets built what in order to prevent the flight of refugees seeking to escape the oppression of East Germany?