“Russia in Upheaval” I. Czarist Rule is overthrown: At the end of the 19th century, ___________ remained one of the most _____________ states in the world. Think back to the 1800s: There was dissent in Russia because of Alexander II’s ______________ which went against the people’s normal way of life. _______________ repressed this by ending the reforms, thus, Russia lagged behind the rest of _____________ Europe. Even further back in Russia’s history, at the turn of the 18th century, Peter the Great tried to ___________________Russia, but did not meet with favor from those who favored traditional ways. The ______________ Revolution grew out of the long-standing conflict between the goals of the czars-the desire to _____________ Russia & the desire to maintain their autocratic rule. A. Czarist Unpopularity Continues. ____________________ became czar in 1894 at ____. He strongly believed in autocratic rule, thus, Russia stayed behind while western Europe experienced ________________, _______________, and the spread of ________ government. Russia remained weak & underdeveloped. B. There were attempts to industrialize and modernize Russia. 1. Sergei Witte (VEET-tyeh), a minister to the czar, realized change was needed and urged a program of _______________. Foreign __________ were hired. ___________ were increased; ___________ developed; etc. 2. The people reacted negatively. Why? _______________ had been the mainstay of the Russian economy & Russian life. Workers became ____________ with the low standard of living that factory work provided. 3. Social Discontent-other reasons for dissatisfaction. a. _________________: This had humiliated the Russians and was followed by rebellions of workers, peasants, sailors, & other groups. b. _________________ was established. The czar agreed to this first parliament and managed to increase participation in the government. There were now more reforms: 1. land was given to more peasants. 2. Greater freedom was given to the most successful farmerskulaks (fists). 4. C. Yet, troops were used to suppress rebellion. c. _________________-January 22, 1905: a group marched to the Winter Palace with demands and were fired on by imperial troops; hundreds were killed and wounded. Political Discontent-Ideas introduced from the west caused people to ____________ czarist rule, and improved transportation & communication helped the formation of political _____________. a. _______________-believed strongly in the views of ____________ (majority party). These revolutionaries thought industrialization made socialism possible. What is ___________? A political & economic philosophy that calls for government or worker ownership and operation of business and industry for the benefit of ___________. The leader of this movement, _________________, was dedicated to overthrowing czarist rule & the capitalist system. b. _____________-(minority) hoped revolutionary goals could be realized by less __________ means. Revolution is at hand. 1. March Revolution-1917: 3 factors contributed to this. a. _______________-Russia’s interest in the Balkans involved an unprepared Russia. Neither the industry, government, nor military were ready. b. _________________-Czar Nicholas II had been with the troops fighting since 1915. His wife, Alexandra, ran the government. She had no experience in ruling & turned to her son (heir to the throne) for help. He suffered from hemophilia-a disease that prevents blood from clotting. In her despair, she believed Rasputin, who convinced her he could cure her son. She began to rely on his advise and choice of government officials. The mismanagement alarmed many who killed him in 1916. c. ____________ is overthrown-The mis-management of the war effort by the czar and his officers led the soldiers to lose respect for czarist rule & made them willing to join the workers when the revolution began. This was unplanned. The war had aggravated tensions. The czar was overthrown in March, 1917. 2. Bolshevik Revolution-Also known as the ____________ Revolution of 1917. a. _____________ Government-had been set up by the Duma under the leadership of Alexander ___________, who wanted to protect b. c. d. II. individual’s rights and continue the war against ____________. He wanted to restore unity through Democratic rule with a _______________. Military Dictatorship proposed-With disunity, some said this would hold the country together by armed __________. Opposition by Petrograd Soviet to the Provisional government. ____________-a representative council of ___________, _____________, & _____________. This was an influential group who excluded the upper class. It was under the control of the Bolsheviks led by Lenin, who understood the people’s ____________. By mid-1917, Russians wanted reforms and an end to the war. 1. To peasants, Lenin offered________ that would be taken from the landowner. 2. To workers, he offered __________ & control of the _____________. 3. To soldiers, he offered ______________. 4. To national minorities, he offered ____________________. The Bolsheviks gained support in the major __________. Soviets begin rule. Lenin’s supporters, led by _________________, seized government buildings in Petrograd & arrested members of the Provisional Government. St. Petersburg was renamed ______________ at the beginning of the war in 1914 to eliminate the _____________ sound of the name. After Lenin’s death in 1924, the city was renamed Leningrad. Bolsheviks declared a Soviet Republic, dedicated to a ____________ society. Soviets would be in power for 74 years. Lenin builds a Soviet State. A. The new government was established-Before Lenin could build a solid government, there would be much strife confronted by the people. 1. Shaky beginningsa. _________________________-humiliating: The Polish lands, the Baltic provinces, Finland, & the Ukraine, which was rich farmland, were given up. The Allied defeat cancelled this, but Finland, & the Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania, & Estonia, retained their ______________ from the Bolsheviks. b. 2. B. ______________ within-The Communist leaders faced opposition. Bolsheviks are now referred to as ___________. (Red army was organized by Trotsky.) Those opposing were the ___________. They supported the parlimentary government. ___________ fought in Ukraine. The new independent nation of Poland declared war on Soviet Russia & took territory in western Russia. Forces from Britain, France, the U.S., and Japan, moved into Russian territory and helped the Whites. It was anarchy & chaos. ____________ established-Violence and absolute power was used to suppress opposition. The Russian Secret Police (_______) used this. Enemies were sent to concentration camps. Czar Nicholas, his wife & children, were imprisoned & killed in July, 1918. The capital was moved from Petrograd to ___________. Economic & Social Changes 1. War Communism-These were ______________ measures that failed to revive the economy. a. 1st goal-control of ____________ activity. b. Industry, banks, & foreign trade came under _____________ control. c. All men under 50 were drafted for __________ or for the _________services. d. ____________ were mobilized to work in factories & on construction projects. e. Strikes were ___________. f. To feed the people in the cities & the army, soldiers seized food from the ________________. There was much opposition to this. 2. _________________________ (NEP)-Lenin abandoned the socialist goal of a rigidly planned economy. This allowed small scale manufacturing, trade, & agriculture to return to private ownership, while the government kept control of major ______________, _________, & means of __________________. 3. State Planning Agency (Gosplan)-promoted electrification throughout the country. The first step in giving the state complete control, it was backed by __________ & _________ over all factors involved in production & distribution. 4. Social Changes: Communist philosophy (political) or ideology-appealed to ___________ & ___________. Social services were promised, yet, everyone had the duty to work. National minorities were granted the right to use their own _____________ & to preserve their cultures, as long as they followed _______________ leadership. C. Marriage of the ___________ Government and the ______________ Party. 1. Political Opposition is suppressed. In the Kremlin, Lenin directed the Soviet State. The key to success: _____________. The only political party ____________ in the new Russia was the Communist party. 2. Leaders dominate. The new government led by members of the Party’s ____________ (political office). Leaders controlled the government, women’s groups, and professional & cultural organizations. 3. __________ Soviet-Highest government authority: Council of Ministers, staffed with the highest ranking party members, formed the __________ branch of government. 4. Many Republics ________ (new approach). Russia had often tried to impose Russian culture on others. The ________ (Union of Soviet Socialists Republic) formed in _______ with each member republic representing a different major _____________, such as Georgia, the Ukraine, Kasakh, & Uzbek. The self-determination principle preserved without harming the unity of the ____________________ country. 5. Religious persecution-One of the first acts of the Bolsheviks had been to seize __________ land and property. They wanted to ____________ the role of the Church in people’s lives, because it was a rival for their _____________. Religious people suffered much ______________ under Communist rule. 6. Communism becomes _______________. Lenin looked beyond the Soviet Union. He sent out an appeal for revolution to all who blamed their governments for ____________, __________, or __________. Communist parties sprang up in _________, China, __________, & ___________. In 1919, Lenin formed the Communist Third International (______________) to bring about world revolution. This goal soon became secondary to that of strengthening the Soviet Union. By late 1918, the Communists, led by Lenin, emerged as the leaders of a new state. Lenin finally established a ______________ that attempted to create a state with a ____________ economy. III. The Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. A. Rivalry between Stalin & Trotsky over command. 1. 2. B. ____________ planning was behind both the Bolshevik seizure of power in 1917 & the strict discipline of the Red Army. _________ favored him. Stalin was the son of a Georgia shoemaker. 1922-appointed general secretary of the Communist Party. Stalin used his position to gain _______________ of the party. He eliminated from the Party anyone who opposed him or his goals, including Trotsky. They were eventually driven out of the Soviet Union. In 1929, on his 50th birthday, ____________ was officially hailed as Lenin’s successor. Stalin’s governing policies. 1. Rapid industrialization-replaced the NEP. a. ____________________-This involved a series of 5 year plans set up for the deliberate, forced growth of _____________. The first in 1928 was drastic. Total _________ control began. Private business ended. All economic activity came under state management. b. Problems: 1. The plans led to _____________, delays, & _________ service for consumers. 2. Under the plans, large numbers of men & women were ____________ to work in factories. 3. They were paid ________ wages based on what they produced. 4. Workers were poorly fed and lived in ______________ housing. 5. The emphasis on _____________ led to the production of shoddy (_________ quality) goods. 2. The governmental use of ______-was to boost Soviet industry. Writers, painters, & musicians could produce only works of “_______________ realism.” They were to inspire the people’s ______________ to the state. 3. Agriculture-This was reorganized under collective farming. a. _____________ farming-the bringing together of the livestock, equipment, & buildings of many small farms on one large tract of land. The people could not ________________ produce their crops. b. The peasants ___________, however, the armed forces forced collectivization in the winter of 1929-1930. Those _________ (most prosperous & successful farmers) who kept resisting were shot or sent to __________ -forced labor camps. c. d. 4. Consequences1. Peasants ______________ their own animals rather than turn them over to the state. Tthe loss of livestock (100 million animals) caused severe ___________ of meat, dairy products, leather goods, & fertilizer. 2. __________ was seized for export & millions starved to death. By the mid-1930s, collective farms, each composed of _________________ of households, were the rule in the Soviet Union. Stalin showed no concern. He made 1 _______________-he allowed peasants to keep small plots of land for private use. Government changed. a. A new _________________ -the rights of Soviet citizens could be severely ____________ under this. The constitution described the goals of the party; everything must be done in the interest of the state. b. Opposition grew. Many said Stalin had gone too far and suggested he step down in favor the Party secretary in Leningrad, Sergei _________. c. ___________________-December 1934, Kirov was murdered. The purge lasted from 1935-1939. Many were arrested and _____________ until those being interrogated signed “confessions.” d. Stalin achieved unity, demanding a _______________ statedesignating a government in which unified action is achieved through the complete ______________ of the leader. Stalin came to power after Lenin’s death in 1924. Stalin _____________ enforced policies of industrial growth and the collectivization of agriculture. Years of purges killed __________ and made Stalin the allpowerful ruler of the __________________.