Clauses Relative Pronouns Subordinating Conjunctions

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Clauses
Name:
Period:
Relative Pronouns: Adjective clauses and noun clauses are introduced by relative pronouns.
who
which
whom
whichever
whose
that
whoever
what
whomever
whatever
Subordinating Conjunctions: Adverb clauses and some noun clauses are introduced by subordinating
conjunctions.
Common Subordinating Conjunctions:
after
although
as
as if
as long as
as soon as
as though
because
before
even though
if
in order that
how
however
once
since
so that
than
though
unless
until
when
whenever
where
wherever
whether
while
Identifying and Using Independent and Dependent Clauses
Exercise 1: [Bracket] the dependent clauses in each of the sentences. There are 20 dependent clauses.
1. Did you see the man who was walking down the hall after the bell rang?
2. Where did that man run when the teachers chased him?
3. Unless we sell a lot of tickets, we will not be able to have the prize drawing that has been planned.
4. That is the location where the new school will be built.
5. Hermione called Professor McGonagle because she needed some information about whatever she
was studying for extra credit.
6. The students were surprised at how easy the test was.
7. After we had packed our trunks, Mom took us to Platform 9 3/4.
8. Here is a list of items that you should purchase for your classes.
9. Ron and Harry finished their assignment before the bell rang, but Draco was too busy making faces.
10. A thirty-cent milkshake is what the world needs!
11. The school sent flowers to whoever was ill.
12. Neville keeps forgetting that his seat has been changed.
13. After I wrote a report, my friend proofread it so that I could go to the movies.
14. Ginny suddenly realized that she was late.
15. What the neighbors will think will bother him unless his self-esteem improves.
Clauses, continued, p. 2
Exercise 2:
[Bracket] the [dependent clauses]. Then write the subject and the verb of the
independent clause(s) on the line.
Example: If the moon is full, we will not need to use the flashlight unless the clouds roll in.
Answer: [If the moon is full], we will not need to use the flashlight [unless the clouds roll in].
we, will need
1. Verona is the city where the Montagues and the Capulets lived.
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2. Many of the people who live in our town work in the textile plant.
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3. As the music became louder, the dancing grew wilder.
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4. Luke, who is my best friend, has been playing the piano since he was six years old.
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5. Since you’re my friend, I won’t beat you at football, although you know that I could!
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6. Mrs. Ross can’t go to the game until her dog is finished at the veterinary clinic.
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7. The girl whose dinosaur ran away was crying as if she were all alone in the world.
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8. If the weather doesn’t change, we may have to close the school, which would make us all sad.
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9. Mr. Sheldon, who called this meeting, has an important announcement about early dismissal.
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10. Abby will be too late unless she gets here soon.
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Clauses continued, p. 3
Exercise 3: Write a sentence by adding an independent clause to each dependent clause below.
Example: before he could go to the game.
Answer: Sean had to empty the dishwasher before he could go to the game.
1. after they visited the museum
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2. as he stepped into the room
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3. if the opportunity arises
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4. whoever can use them
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5. when the mail comes
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6. since you asked my opinion
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7. although I don’t agree
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8. until the job is done
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9. which we didn’t expect
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10. while waiting for my friend
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Clauses continued, p. 4
The Adverb Clause
An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. An
adverb clause tells how, when, where, why, how much, to what extent, or under what condition the
action of the main verb takes place.
Example: When people enter a museum, they sometimes don’t know where to
go first.
The adverb clause tells when people don’t know where to go.
Adverb clauses are often introduced by subordinating conjunctions.
Exercise 4: Circle the subordinating conjunction in each of the following clauses.
1. as if I needed any encouragement
2. although we were late
3. even though it was dark
4. so that Harry could join us
5. unless the museum closes early
6. until we meet up with the others
7. whether the sun shines
8. when the clock strikes six
9. since the sixteenth century
10. after they turned over the rapids
Exercise 5: [Bracket] the [adverb clause] in each of the following sentences. Then draw an arrow to
the verb, adjective, or adverb it modifies.
1. You should study museum guide before you go anywhere.
2. Some people stop where the prehistoric animal skeletons stand.
3. If you are curious about dinosaurs, you can learn a lot about them.
4. Museum models are helpful because dinosaurs can be hard to imagine.
Clauses continued, p. 5
Identifying and Using Adverb Clauses
Exercise 6: [Bracket] the [adverb clause] in each of the following sentences. Then draw an arrow to
the verb, adjective, or adverb it modifies.
1. When Hermione joined my class, my grades improved.
2. Until she started helping me, I performed badly.
3. Now I succeed as long as she assists me.
4. I failed often because I lacked confidence.
5. Whenever Hermione hears me complain, she scolds me.
6. She yells at me if I start to sound uncertain.
7. She stares at me as if I am deranged!
8. Although she seems fierce, I appreciate her help.
9. I work very well unless she is absent.
10. A friend like Hermione shines wherever she goes.
Exercise 8: Expand each sentence by adding an adverb clause that begins with the subordinating
conjunction in parentheses.
Example: I watched an old movie. (after)
Answer: After I totaled my car, I watched an old movie.
1. I watch old movies. (whenever)
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2. Old movies are fine. (as long as)
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3. I scan the channels. (until)
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4. Foreign films are a problem. (because)
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Clauses continued, p. 6
5. I avoid sad movies. (unless)
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6. I pop some popcorn. (before)
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7. I am riveted to my seat. (as soon as)
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8. It never feels late to me. (although)
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9. The settings always interest me. (wherever)
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10. Sometimes my puppy joins me. (while)
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