# Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology ```Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology
HST.410J: Projects in Microscale Engineering for the Life Sciences, Spring 2007
Course Directors: Prof. Dennis Freeman, Prof. Martha Gray, and Prof. Alexander Aranyosi
HST.410J/6.021J
Lecture 6
February 27, 2007
Figure from Weiss, T. F. Cellular Biophysics,
Vol. I. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.
Courtesy of MIT Press. Used with permission.
Random Walk Model
• number of solute particles &lt;&lt; number of solvent particles
• motion of solute determined by collisions with solvent
(ignore solute-solute interactions)
• focus on 1 solute particle, assume motions of others
are statistically identical
Every τ seconds, solute particle gets hit by solvent particle.
In response, solute particle is equally likely to move +l or −l.
τ = mean free time; l = mean free path
0
l
2l
x
3l
1
0.8
0.6
1
W(m,n)
0.8
0.4
0.6
0.2
0.4
0
0
1
2
3
4 n
0.2
0
-7
5
-5
-3
6
-1 1
m
3
7
5
7
Figure from Weiss, T. F. Cellular Biophysics,
Vol. I. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.
Courtesy of MIT Press. Used with permission.
x
–3
–2
–1
0
50%
68%
95%
99%
1
2
3
x
–3
–2
–1
0
50%
68%
95%
99%
1
2
3
Apply Fick's law to dye demonstration
initially
dye
no dye
c(x,t=0)
φ(x,t=0)
Find c(x,t) for t&gt;0
x
Fick's law:�
�
∂ c(x,t)
φ(x,t) = − D
∂x
• provides information about time &quot;t&quot; only�
• need new information to get from time &quot;t&quot; to time &quot;t+Δt&quot;
c(x,t)
φ(x,t)
If there is net flux out of a region,�
then the concentration in that region must fall.�
If there is net flux into a region,�
then the concentration in that region must rise.
→ conservation of solute
x
Continuity Equation
area A
volume AΔx
area A
φ(x,t)
φ(x+Δx,t)
x
c(x+Δx
,t)
2
x+Δx
x
Amount of solute entering�
through edges during (t,t+Δt)
left
φ(x,t+Δ_2t )
right
A Δt −
x+Δx
Change in amount of solute�
in volume from t to t+Δt
time 2
φ(x+Δx,t+Δ_2t )
A Δt =
c(x+Δ_2x,t+Δt)
time 1
A Δx − c(x+Δ_2x,t) A Δx
equal if solute is neither created nor destroyed
φ(x,t+Δ_2t )
−
φ(x+Δx,t+Δ_2t )
Δx
=
c(x+Δ_2x,t+Δt) − c(x+Δ_2x,t)
Δt
Take limit as Δx→0 and Δt→0
−
∂ φ(x,t)
∂x
=
∂ c(x,t)
∂t
Importance of Scale
2
t1/2 =
x1/2
D
; D = 10
−5
cm2
+
s for small solutes (e.g., Na )
x1/2
membrane sized�
10 nm�
cell sized�
10 &micro;m�
dime sized
10 mm
t1/2
1�
&micro;sec�
10
1�
sec�
10
105 sec ≈ 1 day
```