In the UK only a fifth (19%) of the public claim to be feminists, including 27% of women and 10% of men. (66%) stated they were definitely not feminists, including 77% of men and even a majority (57%) of women. Suffrage advocate, 1917 American Moderns: The Popular image of the Roaring Twenties– John Held’s Flapper Women could vote in Wyoming, Utah and other western states from 1869. Property rights had been achieved Pay was unequal, but no law existed protecting the right to strike Over 8 million women were in the workforce from 1915 During the war, of the 9.5 million war workers, 2.25 million were women Women continue to form ¼ of workforce, gradually dominating white collar work Consumer culture appeals to woman as center of consumer households “The position of a married woman ... is, in many respects, precisely similar to that of the negro slave. She can make no contract and hold no property; whatever she inherits or earns becomes at that moment the property of her husband.... Though he acquired a fortune through her, or though she earn a fortune through her talents, he is the sole master of it, and she cannot draw a penny....[I]n the English common law a married woman is nothing at all. She passes out of legal existence.” Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1869 Women active from 1820s in anti-slavery campaigns—link between causes Sarah Grimke, Southern abolitionist and social activist: “Men and women were created equal…Whatever is right for a man to do, is right for a woman.” (1838) But was the women’s movement just for middleclass, educated women who could afford servants like Stanton and Anthony? Feb 1869 Congress passes 15th Amendment: right to vote can’t be denied “on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” Women had supported war in North by working for US Sanitary Commission and National Woman’s Loyal League Black and women’s rights linked: Stanton, Anthony and Stone found American Equal Rights Assn in 1866 “If that word ‘male’ be inserted, it will take us a century at least to get it out.”– EC Stanton Abolitionist groups withdraw funds from suffrage orgs Stanton/Anthony oppose 15th amendment which will create ‘aristocracy of sex’ Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911), an advocate of racial equality and women’s rights who sided with Frederick Douglass in arguing that black suffrage should take precedence over votes for women. Disagreement over amendment causes split: Moderates led by AWSA (Lucy Stone, Julia Ward Howe and Henry Blackwell) advocate state suffrage first and continue to work with abolitionists and men More radical is the all-female National Women’s Suffrage Organization (NWSA)– the vote is only one of many issues to them: Magazine Revolution addresses divorce, women’s property rights, unequal pay and marriage Only merge in 1890 National American Woman Suffrage Association National Woman’s Party goes for a National Amendment (Alice Paul, 1917) August 18, 1920, 19th Amendment becomes law First women’s rights convention in American history, July 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s Declaration of Sentiments based on Declaration of Independence. Her husband would not accompany her to the convention as he thought it would wreck his career Liberty Party makes women’s suffrage a plank in campaign He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise. He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice. He has withheld from her rights which are given to the most ignorant and degraded men - both natives and foreigners. Having deprived her of this first right as a citizen, the elective franchise, thereby leaving her without representation in the halls of legislation, he has oppressed her on all sides. He has made her, if married, in the eye of the law, civilly dead. He has taken from her all right in property, even to the wages she earns. He has so framed the laws of divorce, as to what shall be the proper causes of divorce, in case of separation, to whom the guardianship of the children shall be given; as to be wholly regardless of the happiness of the women - the law, in all cases, going upon a false supposition of the supremacy of a man, and giving all power into his hands. He has denied her the facilities for obtaining a thorough education - all colleges being closed against her. He has created a false public sentiment by giving to the world a different code of morals for men and women, by which moral delinquencies which exclude women from society, are not only tolerated but deemed of little account in man. Stanton attended Johnstown Academy and studied Latin and Greek. Her father was a prominent lawyer and her mother a descendant of Revolutionary War soldiers Had servants to look after her children and refused to be called Mrs. Henry Stanton Some of first strikes in American labour history led by women 1824 Pawtucket, Rhode Island, young women lead male and female co-workers out to protest wage cuts and ask for longer hours Lowell, Mass, 1834: 800 women protest 25% wage cut. Many quit and go home to the family farms 1845, first chapter of New England female Labour reform Assn. Sarah Bagley leads Lowell chapter and petitions Mass legislature for 10-hr day. 1846: 10,000 signatures (4K women’s) ignored by legislature. Working-class activists become involved with suffrage through joint interests in progressive legislation “For the last halfcentury, it has been deemed a violation of woman’s sphere to appear before the public as a speaker: but when our rights are trampled upon and we appeal in vain to our legislator, what are we to do?...Shall not our voice be heard…shall it be said to the daughters of New England that they have not political rights?” – Sarah Bagley 1847, NH state legislature responds to women who refused to work after dark: first 10-hr day law. ME (1848) and PA (1849) follow 1847, New Hampshire state legislature responds to women workers in Nashua who refused to work after dark: first 10-hr day law. Maine follows in 1848 and Pennsylvania in 1849 Women were still routinely paid less than men 1839: Mississippi, first state to enact married women’s property: but really prevents husbands’ creditors from taking away family slaves after panic of 1837 Maryland (1843), Michigan (1844), and Arkansas (1846) Texas (1840), women could sue for divorce and stop sale of family house even if they were not the owners 1848, New York (a NY act in 1845 had allowed married women’s inventions to remain under their copyright) California follows Spanish Civil Law in 1849, enabling strict separation of married women’s property and assets 1855 Massachusetts Married Women’s Property Act By the end of the Civil War there were 29 state acts, but most women were not allowed guardianship of children and right to manage husbands’ estates While working-class women found industrial jobs and domestic service options, increasing numbers of women become primary school teachers Rise of public education Catherine Beecher advocates women as best teachers for the young Oberlin College first co-ed institute of higher education (1833) Mount Holyoke (1837) first women’s college By 1850 women dominate profession More jobs open up during and after Civil War Lucy Stone (left) pioneers bloomers in 1851 Victoria Woodhull (right) runs for President in 1872; First female stock Broker from 1870 Susan B Anthony (above) arrested November 18, 1872 for voting in Presidential election (even though she said she had voted Republican… Both see higher education as a way out of domestic drudgery and marriage Anthony taught at Eunice Kenyon's Friends' Seminary, and then at the Canajoharie Academy in 1846, where she became headmistress of the Female Department. Anthony's first occupation inspired her to fight for wages equivalent to those of male teachers (men earned roughly four times more than women for the same work) Stone earns degree at Oberlin College and goes on to teach there, also campaigning for equal pay Both had Quaker backgrounds but Anthony ends up rejecting organized religion altogether Daughter of former slaves Graduate of Oberlin College Member of NAWSA and concerned about the organization’s racism Teacher and journalist and Founding member of NAACP Founder of National Association of University women President of Republican Women during Warren Harding’s admin Women’s Trade Union League (1903) Worked for and against the AFL 8 hr day, protective legislation, minimum wage After Triangle Shirtwaist fire, gains even more support Rose Schneiderman speaks in favor of joining NAWSA: working women need “bread and roses”– importance of the franchise Fall in birth rate: women had on average 7 children in 1800, but were only having 4 by 1900 Abstinence, rhythm method, withdrawal or abortion (1 in 4 pregnancies aborted in 1840-1860– same as I the 1990s) First legal bans on abortion in 1860s at state level Access to literature on contraception banned by 1873 Comstock Law– the “chastity” law Harper’s Magazine estimates that 4/5 of reading public were women (1850) Were women merely passive consumers of American culture or were they drivers of publishing industry Women’s fiction (Susan Warner, Catherine Sedgwick, HB Stowe) often depicts women working in cities Relationship between women and missionaries— feminine control of religious instruction Women authors of popular history with educational slant; early social and cultural histories Native American rights championed by women (Helen Hunt Jackson, 1880) See Ann Douglas, The Feminization of American Culture (1988) Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification (1972, passes congress yet not adopted in time by state legislatures) Women’s work largely excluded from social Security No jobs in CCC and many other agencies Men get more relief from gov’t BUT Women, both married and single, work in greater numbers---1/3 workforce They hang onto white collar jobs Higher numbers in education Women cabinet secretaries and heads of FTP Women made $31 to men’s $54 a week in defense jobs but By 1944 only 1.7 million unmarried men between the ages of 20 and 34 worked in the defense industry, while 4.1 million unmarried women between those ages Women’s employment goes up 75% during war 1948 UN proposes statement of equal rights for women; US only nation to veto it 20 million women in workforce in 1942; 4 million women lost their jobs in 1945-46 Equal Pay Act introduced 1945 and resubmitted to congress each year until it finally passed in 1963 1947 230,000 women from AT & T strike Women dropped by unions in postwar era Married women return to work in greater numbers than during war Wage poverty and women’s work Friedan, Feminine Mystique (1963); see de Beauvoir, Second Sex (1949): a woman is not born, she is made National Women’s Political Caucus, 1971/Ms. Magazine founded Shirley Chisholm (NY) first black candidate for President, 1972 Barbara Jordan, first African American elected to TX Senate since Reconstruction, first African American woman to delivery keynote at DNC More than 80% of employed women worked in only 20 of the 420 occupations listed by US Census Bureau In 1973 less than 15% of all employed women were in professional occupations New no-fault divorce laws meant women eliminated alimony; most men default on child support. 1970s number of households headed by women increases to 70% 1975 bankrupt National Welfare Right Org 1980: women become more than 50% of workforce: enter the backlash "I intend to scream, shout, race the engine, call when I feel like it, throw tantrums in Bloomingdale's if I feel like it and confess intimate details about my life to complete strangers. I intend to do what I want to do and be whom I want to be and answer only to myself: that is, quite simply, the bitch philosophy.” Elizabeth Wurzel 80% of all workers in catering, cleaning, hairdressing and personal services are women 78% of clerical workers are women Only 5 out of 50 governors in US are women .1% surgeons in UK are women 147/650 MPs are women According to the BBC, women are 1.3% of brigadiers (or their equivalent) and above across the Army, Navy and RAF 13.2% of the most senior judges (High Court and above, including Senators of the College of Justice in Scotland) 14.2% of university vice-chancellors 16.6% of the most senior staff in the police (Acpo ranks and above) During Reagan administration, cuts pushed 2 million female headed households and 5 million more women below the poverty line.