European Medium-Term Conflict Detection Field Trials FAA/NEXTOR

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FAA/NEXTOR
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
European Medium-Term Conflict
Detection Field Trials
Presented by:
Seppo Kauppinen, HQ/DAP/SPR/ASA Programme
Additional information: http:\\www.eurocontrol.int/odt/
[email protected]
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Presentation
•
•
•
•
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
ASA; Medium-Term Conflict Detection
Field Trials
Results from Rome
Conclusions
•2
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
•3
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
MTCD is a planning tool
•4
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
WHY MTCD ?
EUROCONTROL
Safet
y-a
‘One Sky for Europe’
t
f
a
i
n
plann
ds th
rs
e
s
e
u
ing le
c
o
t
o
t
h
n
e
a
vel
flict
c
i
t
s
v
m
r
e
t
e
i
u
g
ht be
rs
ro
e
t
e
t
y
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r
s
f
.
misse
bu
eb
…
d
n
i
e
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…
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o
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w
es
Pr
t
n
u
e
o
r
v
e
ct
s
e
r
e
i
l
i
d
f
pro
m
u
optim
Early conflict detection with less uncertainty
leading to optimum resolution
m
a
e
t
r
o
ct
cy
e
n
s
e
i
e
c
i
c
f
ef
lan
a
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b
o
e
r
p
R
m
i
d
a
worklo r team
to
in sec
Improves tr
affic awaren
ess
Provides future workload indication
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
•5
FAA/NEXTOR
WHY MTCD ?
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
Have we missed
a conflict ?
Are there any
conflicts coming ?
How far apart will
these two be ?
•6
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Acronyms
Programmes/sub-programmes:
•
EATMP = European Air Traffic Management
Programme
•
ASA = Automated Support to Air Traffic Services
(Programme)
Functions/tools:
•
AMAN = Arrival Management
•
APW = Area Proximity Warning
•
CORA = Conflict Resolution Assistant
•
DMAN = Departure Management
•
EMAN = Enroute Management
•
MSAW = Minimum Safe Altitude Warning
•
MTCD = Medium- Term Conflict Detection
•
STCA = Short- Term Conflict Alert
ATS Units:
•
ACC = Area Control Centre
•
UAC = Upper Area Control Centre
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
EUROCONTROL validation platforms:
•
ESCAPE = Eurocontrol Simulation Capability &
Platform Experimentation
•
PROVE = Pr
Pre-O
Operational Validation &
Experimental Trials Platform
FAA:
•
URET = User Request Evaluation Tool
•7
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Field Trials in EATMP
Lifecycle
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
Analytic
modeling
Fast-time
simulation
Field test
Small-scale
real-time
simulation
Shadow-mode
trial
Operational
trial
Operations
Large-scale
real-time
simulation
Back
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
•8
FAA/NEXTOR
Human-in-the Loop
Planning Controller
Monitor Operational Data
Issue Clearances
Adapt Flight Plans
Observe
conflict display
Transfer
conflict to TC
‘One Sky for Europe’
MTCD
Inspect predicted
trajectories for
conflict situations
Inform
controller
about conflict
Estimate
gravity
of conflict
Acknowledge
conflict
EUROCONTROL
Store
necessary
conflict data
Create conflict
resolution
Delete
conflict data
Resolve the
conflict
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
•9
FAA/NEXTOR
MTCD Architecture
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• Platform uses a client/server architecture
with a CORBA-based middleware.
• MTCD is a server with HMI as a client
• MTCD uses information provided by
Trajectory Prediction service
• Stimulated by a “tick” service (every 5-sec).
• MTCD provides conflict to HMI (createupdate-delete)
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
•10
FAA/NEXTOR
Conflict Detection
(Diagram of components and their relationships)
EUROCONTROL
Concept of Use
‘One Sky for Europe’
Wa
rn
rem ings
Re inder and
req minde s
ues r
ts
Conflict data
ce
ran
lea
w c data d
Ne
te
dic ry
Pre jecto
tra
Controller
CWP
HMI
MTCD
New trajectory data
Monitoring Aids
New trajectory data
Trajectory
prediction
Recalculation triggers
•11
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
MTCD Overview
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• Traffic evolution is specified by a set of
trajectories.
• Trajectories examined in pairs and reported,
if trajectories come too close
•12
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Trajectory Prediction; Initial
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
Planned Trajectory calculated initially according to flight
plan, aircraft performance (BADA) and ATC constraints
ALM
Sector 1
Sector 2
Sector 3
RFL330
LOA-XFL290
LOA-XFL270
X ALM FL90 or Climb as
early as
possible
Descend
as late as
possible
•13
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
MTCD Calculations
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• Projection system used, WGS-84
• MTCD transfers lat/long to projection plane
• We calculate in flat projection having
ensured that errors were insignificant
– worst case for relative distance of 5NM is
0.05NM with maximum segments of 50NM
• Aircraft are assumed to fly along a straight
line, in reality along a great circle
•14
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Timeslice Filtering
Conflict possible in
2nd Timeslice
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
Timeslice Areas
1st
2nd
3rd
•15
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Uncertainty Modelling with
buffer zone
now
+10 mins
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
+20 mins
Perfect Prediction
Reality Uncertain
Model with Buffer
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
•16
FAA/NEXTOR
Vertical Uncertainties
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
Fast Climb
Slow Climb
Early Climb
Late Climb
•17
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
MTCD Checks for
horizontal separation loss
between buffers
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
•18
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Field Trials
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
•19
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Trials Objectives (2)
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• Evaluate Controller roles, tasks and working methods
when using MTCD tools
– to identify, analyse, monitor and resolve problems in a
stripless environment
• Identify tasks where use of MTCD leads to time
saving for the Controller in order to estimate the
potential impact on controller workload
• Permit ATS providers to conduct an analysis of
MTCD in their own system to identify and quantify
future implementation risks, constraints and
challenges
•20
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Trials Partners
Malmo ACC
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
Rome ACC
•Generic validation plan produced by UK NATS
•Analysis done by Dutch National Airspace Laboratory
•Safety analysis by SOFREAVIA
EUROCONTROL
Maastricht UAC
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
•21
FAA/NEXTOR
We use PROVE?
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• A live field trials infra-structure deployed in
many ACCs around Europe
“LIVE”
• AFTN (FPLs)
• Radar Tracks
• R/T
Copenhagen
Data (OLDI) /
Voice (Audiolan)
Malmö
•22
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
PROVE Platform
TIS-B
ADS-B
Asterix Cat 62
Asterix
Cat 21
Asterix Cat 1&2
Radars
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
PROVE
ARTAS
Asterix Cat 32
Asterix Cat 62
Track Gateway
Operational
System
Correlation
FPL Gateway
AFTN
ICAO
Telecoms
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
•23
FAA/NEXTOR
Technical
System
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
Host ACC
System
System flight plans
radar data
ALENIA
Interface
Component
PROVE
FDP TP
MONA MTCD
HMI
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
•24
FAA/NEXTOR
MTCD CWP
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
•25
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
•26
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
MTCD Problem Display
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
•27
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Results
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
Results
are available through
the EUROCONTROL Experimental
Centre WEB:
www.eurocontrol.fr
•28
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
PC Decision Process
no
Detection
of problems
in the PPD
Get problem
oriented
flight leg
‘One Sky for Europe’
Lowlight
Decide:
problem?
no
yes
EUROCONTROL
Resolve by
co-ordinating
PEL/XFL
Decide:
TC problem?
yes
Highlight
or
transfer early
or
put on warning
•Cognitive process/state
•Actions in the EATMP system
•29
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Workload Assessment
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• Main point of MTCD is a more equal
distribution of workload within the sector.
– PC to take over some of TC’s workload
• Methods:
• NASA Task Load Index (to assess the experienced
level of workload), and
• Interviews on the level of experienced workload as
well as on anticipated workload changes.
•30
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Usability Assessment
•
•
•
•
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
Goals of use achieved (Effectiveness)
Resources to achieve goals (Efficiency),
Use is acceptable (Satisfaction).
Methods:
• System Usability Scale (Brooke, 1998),
• Interviews on the usability of different system
components, and
• Observation of system interaction.
•31
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Human Computer Trust
Rating Scale
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• Measures (scale 0-20)
• Understandability, Technical Competence,
Perceived Reliability, Faith, Personal Attachment
• Trust ratings were generally higher on Day
5 than on Day 1 of the validation
• Mean score (10) is middle of the scale
• Statistically significant increase was
observed only for understandability
•32
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Situation Awareness
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• Built on aircraft-oriented flight leg and
Extended Label Window
• sort of an electronic strip presentation
• PPD used for conflicts and risks.
• PPD was second step after an understanding of
traffic situation built by radar.
• PPD data used with own understanding of
traffic situation.
•33
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Expected Changes In
Controller Task
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• PC/TC thought operational system like tried
would considerably change their task.
• MTCD is expected to change when and by
whom conflicts are solved:
• conflicts solved earlier, and often by PC
• Controllers expect problems (e.g. de-skill,
over-trust), if future controllers would stop
monitoring the traffic situation
•34
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Rome trial statistics
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• 24:30 hours of shadow mode trials
– 10 active sessions
– 14 advanced sessions
11hrs25
13hrs05
Active
Advanced
•35
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Rome trial statistics
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• Conflicts and risks detected by MTCD
99
Conflicts
Risks
257
– 54 conflicts disappeared within 10 seconds.
– 95 conflicts were lowlighted.
•36
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Situation Awareness
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• Earlier conflict identification due to:
– MTCD information in PPD and flight leg,
– early correlation of traffic at PROVE platform.
• Better insight into problem geometry due to:
– display of minimum distance,
– information on aircraft position.
• Benefits sometimes limited by:
– nuisance alerts,
– large changes in predicted minimum distance over time.
•37
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Workload
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• Experienced level of workload higher for Trial
team than for OPS team (TLX), but
– large training difference between current system and
EATMP system,
– EATMP system is an experimental system,
– controllers combine conventional working methods
with analysis of MTCD information.
• With more training and an approved operational
system, decreases in workload are expected.
•38
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Safety
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• MTCD and MONA are expected to increase
safety, because of:
– Early conflict detection,
– Monitoring of track deviations,
– Transfer reminders.
• No new safety risks associated with MTCD were
identified.
•39
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Shadow mode trials
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• (Advanced) shadow mode is a suitable way of
testing a new system.
• Controllers are less tolerant towards system
problems and restrictions in advanced shadow
mode.
• System “limitations” mostly identified in
advanced shadow mode
– uncertainty in trajectory prediction,
– trajectory re-calculation,
– effect of wind.
•40
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Conclusions
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
• Controllers felt confident to progress to advanced
shadow mode in high traffic load.
• Concept of MTCD highly appreciated by
controllers.
• Crucial aspects in the introduction of MTCD:
– Controller working methods,
– Knowledge of system potential and limitations.
•41
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
FAA/NEXTOR
Workload
EUROCONTROL
‘One Sky for Europe’
Mean NASA TLX ratings
as a function of team and controller role
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
OPS team
Planning Controller
Tactical Controller
Trial Team
•42
© 2002 European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL)
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