CHM 222 Biomolecules Review Questions 1. The bond that links saccharides is called a(n) _____. 2. Draw maltose, name the individual saccharide units, and describe where they link. 3. The oxidized form of a reducing monosaccharide is called a(n) ___________________ 4. There are two broad categories of lipids and carbohydrates known as _____ and _____. The lipid at right is an example of this category. _____ OH To which of the seven lipid subcategories that we discussed does it belong? _____ Is it a chiral molecule? ____ 5. What structural characteristics distinguish fatty acid from other carboxylic acids? O 6. Terpenes are built from _____ which has _____(#) carbons. 7. What are the two essential fatty acids? What does essential indicate? What part of the two fatty acids does our body have trouble producing? 8. Which category of lipid is most important for cell membranes? 9. What are the two types of plant starch? How are their structures similar and different? 10. Which of the following are macromolecules? proteins, lipids, carbohydrates 11. A tetrapeptide contains ____(#) amino acids. 12. The amino acid at right is in its _____ configuration. 13. An ion having both a positive and negative charge is a ________________. - CO 2 + H NH3 CH3 14. To which of the four classes of amino acid does cysteine belong? 15. Draw the structure of a generic dipeptide using H3N+-CHR-CO2-. What type of bond links the amino acids? Draw an arrow to this bond. 16. What are the four levels of protein structure? What level is given for this tripeptide? alanine–lysine–aspartic acid 17. What is denaturation of protein? What can cause this to happen? Is it permanent? 18. What is the net charge on cysteine, pI=5.1, when the pH=6.3? Which way will it move during electrophoresis? 19. The site on the enzyme where reaction occurs is known as the ___________ site. 20. DNA is sometimes made from RNA by ________ viruses. This process is called _____________________? 21. Nucleic acids are synthesized from their ____ end to their ____ end. 22. Two main categories of nucleic acids. (full names) ________________________________________ ______________________________________ Name the three subcategories of one of the nucleic acids above. Be sure that you know the purpose of each. O 23. What are the building blocks of nucleosides? N HN 24. Give the name and type of base shown at right. NH H2N N 25. What is the anticodon for the codon UUC? For what amino acid does this code?