Henry VIII B. 1491 – D. 1547 Tudor Dynasty Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Lady Jane Grey Mary I Elizabeth I Became king in 1509; 18 yrs old His brother Arthur died in 1502 at age 15 Arthur had been married to the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon King Henry VIII What role did Henry VIII play in the Protestant Reformation? He made England a Protestant country to fulfill his own agenda; not for religious reasons! Catherine of Aragon Daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain Married Henry VIII in 1509; what about Arthur? 20 year marriage Suffered 4 miscarriages and several stillbirths Only 1 child lives-Mary (b. 1516) “The King’s Great Matter” Henry VIII wanted a male heir; Catherine was not able to have any more children Why not just get a divorce? Henry asked for an annulment based on Catherine’s marriage to Arthur. (Leviticus) The pope refused to grant it. Why? The Holy Roman Emperor was Charles V…Catherine’s nephew. “The King’s Great Matter” Affair – Anne Boleyn 1529 – Henry VIII calls Parliament into session; they passed laws ending the pope’s power in England. 1534 – Act of Supremacy Made Henry VIII the head of the Church of England (Anglican Church). Irony: Henry VIII had earned the title “Defender of the Faith” from the pope. Anne Boleyn Anne becomes pregnant with Henry’s child (1532) But…he’s still married to Catherine. Parliament legalizes his divorce in 1533. Anne Boleyn 1533- H8 marries Anne Boleyn and she gives birth to their child Another girl: Elizabeth Anne suffers 2 miscarriages Anne Boleyn is accused of adultery; imprisoned and later beheaded by sword in 1536. The charges against her were false! Tower of London Dissolution of the Monasteries 1536-1539: H8 closed all English monasteries and seized wealth and land. Catholic Church owned 20% of all land in England. Greatly increased Henry’s wealth. Led to massive poverty among monks and nuns. MAIN IDEA: Even though Henry VIII makes England Protestant, it’s only for political and personal reasons, not religious ones. Doesn’t actually change any church practices or doctrines. Jane Seymour Henry married Jane Seymour 10 days after Anne’s execution. She gave birth to his only son, Prince Edward in 1537, but died 12 days later. Henry wanted more sons as insurance. Anne of Cleves Married Henry in 1540. “Flanders mare” Brief marriage was annulled. Why? No chemistry. Katherine Howard Married Henry in 1540. He was 49; she was 19. She had affairs; was beheaded in 1542. Katherine Parr Married Henry in 1543. She was a widow; she outlived Henry and remarried after his death. Kind stepmother. Compared to his 1st wife. King Edward VI When H8 died in 1547, his only son became king. Edward was only 9. Govt. was run by Protestant advisors. Died in 1553 at the age of 15. (TB) His advisors picked his cousin, Jane Grey to succeed him. The “9 days queen” Queen Mary I R. 1553-1558 Known in history as “Bloody Mary” Repealed everything Protestant. Turned England back to Catholicism. Passed Heresy Act-killed 300 Protestants during her reign. Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (1558-1603) Glorified as strongest female monarch in England’s history. “Good Queen Bess” Known for being tolerant and moderate in religious issues. Reestablished Protestantism, but not too strict. Her changes lasted-The Church of England (Anglican Church) is still in place today with the same policies she established.