Tudor Dynasty and the English Reformation

Henry VIII
B. 1491 – D. 1547
 Tudor Dynasty
 Henry VII
 Henry VIII
 Edward VI
 Lady Jane Grey
 Mary I
 Elizabeth I
 Became king in 1509;
18 yrs old
 His brother Arthur
died in 1502 at age 15
 Arthur had been
married to the Spanish
princess Catherine of
King Henry VIII
 What role did Henry
VIII play in the
 He made England a
Protestant country to
fulfill his own
agenda; not for
religious reasons!
Catherine of Aragon
 Daughter of King
Ferdinand and Queen
Isabella of Spain
 Married Henry VIII in 1509;
what about Arthur?
 20 year marriage
 Suffered 4 miscarriages
and several stillbirths
 Only 1 child lives-Mary (b.
“The King’s Great Matter”
 Henry VIII wanted a male heir; Catherine was
not able to have any more children
 Why not just get a divorce?
 Henry asked for an annulment based on
Catherine’s marriage to Arthur. (Leviticus)
 The pope refused to grant it. Why? The Holy
Roman Emperor was Charles V…Catherine’s
“The King’s Great Matter”
 Affair – Anne Boleyn
 1529 – Henry VIII calls Parliament into
session; they passed laws ending the pope’s
power in England.
 1534 – Act of Supremacy
 Made Henry VIII the head of the Church of
England (Anglican Church).
 Irony: Henry VIII had earned the title
“Defender of the Faith” from the pope.
Anne Boleyn
 Anne becomes pregnant
with Henry’s child (1532)
 But…he’s still married to
 Parliament legalizes his
divorce in 1533.
Anne Boleyn
 1533- H8 marries Anne Boleyn and she gives
birth to their child
 Another girl: Elizabeth
 Anne suffers 2 miscarriages
 Anne Boleyn is accused of adultery;
imprisoned and later beheaded by sword in
1536. The charges against her were false!
Tower of London
Dissolution of the Monasteries
 1536-1539: H8 closed all English
monasteries and seized wealth and
 Catholic Church owned 20% of all
land in England.
 Greatly increased Henry’s wealth.
 Led to massive poverty among
monks and nuns.
Even though Henry VIII makes
England Protestant, it’s only for
political and personal reasons, not
religious ones.
Doesn’t actually change any church
practices or doctrines.
Jane Seymour
 Henry married Jane
Seymour 10 days after
Anne’s execution.
 She gave birth to his
only son, Prince
Edward in 1537, but
died 12 days later.
 Henry wanted more
sons as insurance.
Anne of Cleves
 Married Henry in
 “Flanders mare”
 Brief marriage
was annulled.
 Why? No
Katherine Howard
 Married Henry in
 He was 49; she was
 She had affairs; was
beheaded in 1542.
Katherine Parr
 Married Henry in 1543.
 She was a widow; she
outlived Henry and
remarried after his
 Kind stepmother.
Compared to his 1st
King Edward VI
 When H8 died in 1547, his only
son became king.
 Edward was only 9.
 Govt. was run by Protestant
 Died in 1553 at the age of 15.
 His advisors picked his cousin,
Jane Grey to succeed him. The
“9 days queen”
Queen Mary I
 R. 1553-1558
 Known in history as
“Bloody Mary”
 Repealed everything
 Turned England back to
 Passed Heresy Act-killed
300 Protestants during
her reign.
Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
 Glorified as strongest female monarch in England’s history.
 “Good Queen Bess”
 Known for being tolerant and moderate in religious issues.
 Reestablished Protestantism, but not too strict.
 Her changes lasted-The Church of England (Anglican
Church) is still in place today with the same policies she