RADICAL DAYS OF THE REVOLUTION France at War • By 1792, France was at war against Austria and Prussia. • Leaders in Europe feared the spread of the Revolution to their countries and wanted to protect absolutism. • GB, Holland, & Spain joined in against France. • France used conscription; by 1794, the army had grown to 800,000. • “September Massacres” • Some nobles and priests were being held prisoner in Paris. • Rumors spread that these royalists were going to take control of Paris if citizens left to volunteer in battle. • Mobs killed over 1,000 prisoners, some of who were just ordinary criminals. The Monarchy is Abolished • The Legislative Assembly was replaced by a more radical group – the National Convention • Abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic. • King Louis XVI was tried and found guilty of treason against France. • Jan. 21, 1793 – Louis was executed by the guillotine. Reign of Terror • By 1793, France was in even more turmoil than when the revolution began in 1789. • Food shortages, inflation, factions… • The NC created a 12-member Committee of Public Safety – led by Maximilien Robespierre. • Why is 1793-1794 known as the reign of “terror”? Robespierre Reign of Terror • Neighborhood watch committeesneighbors were encouraged to spy on each other and turn in traitors to the revolution. • “Liberty cannot be secured unless criminals lose their heads” – Robespierre (He believed terror was justified to defend the republic. Reign of Terror • Same-day trial and execution • About 300,000 people were arrested and between 20,000 and 40,000 were executed during the “terror” • Most famous victim- Marie Antoinette • 85% of those killed were from the 3rd estate- the common people who were supposed to benefit from the Revolution. Reign of Terror • Members of the NC realized none of them were safe from Robespierre and turned against him. • He was executed on July 28, 1794. • The Reign of Terror came to an end and the revolution became less radical. • The Directory (a 5-man council) held power in France from 1795-1799.