Totalitarianism/Inter-War Period/Russian Revolution 1.) Joseph Stalin, leader of ______________________ during World War II, sent any and all political enemies to brutal labor camps known as the ________________. He was an evil dictator who killed millions. Why, then, was he on the side of the Allies with the United States and Great Britain? USSR, gulag 2.) What was the name of the book Hitler wrote while in prison? Mein Kampf 3.) The laws that stripped Jews of citizenship rights were called the ________________________. Nuremberg Laws 4.) The strong line of fortifications that the French built along their border with Germany was called the… ________________________. Maginot Line 5.) After the Russian Czar Nicholas II abdicated the throne in 1917, the government was quickly overthrown by the Bolsheviks (Communists). Who was their leader? Lenin 6.) In 1922, Russia officially became the _______________________ and after Lenin died in 1924, ___________________ became the new dictator. USSR, Stalin World War I 7.) What were the 4 MAIN underlying causes of WWI? Nationalism Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, 8.) What were the 2 opposing alliance systems in place prior to WWI? Name the countries included. Hint: IGA vs GB R F Triple Alliance – Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary Triple Entente – Great Britain, Russia, France 9.) Whose assassination started WWI? Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand 10.) WWI took place between the years of ________ and _________. 1914-1918 11.) What were the 2 sides in WWI called? Allies and Central Powers 12.) What type of warfare primarily characterized WWI? Trench Warfare 13.) Why was Germany blamed for WWI, even though it was not one of the 2 countries initially involved? Blank Check of support to Austria, invaded neutral countries, especially aggressive 14.) What year did the US join WWI and why? 1917; ties to the Allies, the Zimmermann Telegram , Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare 15.) Name the treaty that settled WWI and why it was flawed. Treaty of Versailles; it punished Germany too harshly, led to global economic problems 1800s 16.) What topic is illustrated by the above image? imperialism 17.) What continent was almost completely colonized by the major European countries in the late 1800s/early 1900s? Africa 18.) List 3 reasons for the Age of New Imperialism: Money – Natural Resources and New Markets Social Darwinism Humanitarian Goals 19.) The first mechanized industry (which started in GB) was the ________________ industry. textile 20.) The key power source of the Industrial Revolution was the _____________________, invented by James Watt. Steam engine 21.) One major effect of the Industrial Revolution was rapid urbanization. What is this? Mass movement from rural areas to cities as people looked for factory jobs. 22.) The Enlightenment was a movement in the 1700s where philosophers believed they could use ___________________ to solve the problems of their society. Enlightenment ideas contributed to the American and French ___________________. Scientific reason; Revolutions 23.) Who made up each estate in France’s Old Regime? First Estate – Clergy Second Estate – Nobles Third Estate – Everyone Else (peasants, urban workers, bourgeoisie (middle class) 24.) What were the causes of the French Revolution? Social Inequality and unfair taxes, weak leadership, Enlightenment ideas, Financial Crisis and bread shortages 25.) What was the Tennis Court Oath? A promise by the new National Assembly to write a new constitution for France, taken on an indoor tennis court 26.) What event marks the beginning of the French Revolution? Storming of the Bastille 27.) What machine was invented during the French Revolution as a more humane form of execution? Guillotine 28.) Who were the king and queen killed during the French Revolution? Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette 29.) Who led the Committee of Public Safety during the “Reign of Terror” in France? Maximillian Robespierre 30.) Who overthrew the Directory and ruled France from 1799 to 1815? Napoleon Bonaparte 31.) Where was Napoleon born? Exiled to the first time? Exiled to second time and where he died? Corsica, Elba, St. Helena 32.) Identify the Battle of Trafalgar. (Who? When? Who won? Why significant?) Battle between the British and French navies. 1805 off the coast of Spain. British won, significant because it meant Napoleon would not be able to conquer Great Britain. 33.) What strategy did Great Britain use to win the Battle of Trafalgar off the coast of Spain in 1805? Crossing the T 34.) Define the Continental System. Napoleon create a blockade to stop Great Britain from trading with the rest of continental Europe. It was an attempt to cripple their economy because he could not militarily invade them. 35.) Napoleon’s invasion of which country led to his ultimate downfall? Russia 36.) The Russians used the __________-___________ policy to destroy all crops and shelters so the French troops could not use them to survive. Scorched earth 37.) What was Napoleon’s final battle? Waterloo 38.) What was name of the meeting European leaders held after Napoleon’s defeat? What were their goals? Congress of Vienna; to restore the legitimate monarchs to their thrones and restore the balance of power that Napoleon had disrupted.