The Isms: 1815 to 1914 of World War I


The Isms: 1815 to 1914

The End of Napoleon to the beginning of World War I

Population explodes from 200 million in 1815 to 450 million in 1914.

At first things go back to the way it was before the Revolution

Kings are scared that more Revolutions will occur so they allow Constitutions to give people some rights

There was a sense of vulnerability

There was a sense of tension

There was a sense of apprehension

The Church suffered under the Revolution

The weak hearted dropped away, but in the end, it actually benefitted the church because this left the strong to begin reshaping the church


Ultra-Montanism- making the church powerful again

Recover influence with public

End Cleavage (differences in the church)

Gain concordances with all countries (contracts to practice in those countries)

Begin Catholic political parties


 “Old Lights” (Anglicans, Congregationalists,

Presbyterians, and Quakers) start to lose population

 “New Lights” (Methodists, Baptists, etc.) all begin to gain followers- Methodists are the largest growing group.

 Government tries to regain ties to the church in hopes that they both can go back to the old days where they shared the power. Both want to keep the revolutionary spirit down.

Master Craftsman going out, Factory system coming in.

 1815 – 50% of all textiles still handmade. By 1820 98% of all textiles were made in factories.

Railroads become the big business of the day.

 Wrenching change to society, it really disrupted it.

 People come to the cities which were not prepared for the influx of newcomers. No facilities, no homes, no room in schools, most times not really any work.

 The upper middle class starts to become the drivers of manufacturing.

Mass starvation has ended in all of Europeexcept Ireland (1840’s Potato Famine)

Peasants made up 80-90% of population in 1815 by 1914 population was more 50-50.

Death rate going down, Birth rate increasing

(except in Russia still the same -sorry Yulia , and

Irelands Potato Famine kills half of their population)

Even though society would change it takes a while, most still conservative (not wanting to change)


Metternich (Austrian leader) was poster boy for conservatism

Afraid of social revolution

Wanted to keep things the same

“One real problem in Europe- Revolution” he meant social revolution


 John Locke was the poster boy for liberalism

 Not like today’s liberals

They did not want wholesale change and weren’t all that adaptable

 Mostly just want society to become a little more even

Locke’s big idea was that the human experience united us “We are born with a blank slate and experience fills us in”.

Beginning of mass education

Governments are starting to rely on educated people to work within the framework as more democracies emerge

Prussia was the best, Russia was the worst (not really fair, they didn’t have an education system) of the organized countries England was the worst. France was a good middle

Mandatory through 6 th grade

Real curriculum for both sexes

People could work in just about any field, so they all needed education. (Army still held to the old ways with upper class as leaders)

Napoleon starts mandatory education

Kind of modeled after Prussia, kids went through the 6 th grade

Pass/fail- you had to pass tests to continue on in education, if you fail- it was into the trade schools and then jobs.

Very few make it all the way into college, most are out by what we would call middle school.

Had what were called Public (which means private) and Dame (what we would call public) schools.

No mandatory attendance

Most only went through the 3 rd grade

Dame schools were mostly baby-sitting services

Public schools were for the upper class and they were not really governed

Before 1815 you could only be diagnosed in one of four ways

Tumor- you have a growth that could be seen

 Solution-cut it off

Humor- some thing was wrong with the fluids in your body

 Solution- drain it from your body


 Cool it down with water

Miasma- everything else

 Variety of things- salves, herbal essences, etc.

First half of century was Gross Anatomy and second half was Pathology (finding out about diseases)

Still have a division between Doctors and


Doctors would diagnose but little else

Surgeons would only cut off/out things, had no real training in medicine

A very few would do both

 The measure of how good you were was how fast you were. Man who was considered the best was Dr.

Joseph Lister (yes Listerine) who once cut a man’s leg off in seven seconds (and also three of his assistants fingers)

Two problems with surgery

It was NOT painless- everything was done with the patient awake.

Infection was almost guaranteed

1842- OW Holmes invents ether- it was originally used for dental procedures. This eventually makes surgery painless.

Advances in obstetrics (births)

 Dr. Alfred Semelwiess

 Follows a midwife who had an excellent record of mothers not dying after birth.

 He finds out the only difference between his practice and her practice was that she washed her equipment after each birth and washed her hands after touching any patient.

Virchow, Koch (pronounced Cook), and


Big innovation was improvement in microscope


 Makes the connection between sores and bacteria

Koch and Pasteur

Working separately in Germany and France, they begin to isolate pathogens

Koch isolated tuberculosis (1882), Typhis (1883), and

Bubonic (1894)

Pasteur isolates anthrax and discovers amino acids, diabetes, then pasteurization saves milk industry.


 J. Snow tracks cholera in London to bad well water. He tracked cases of cholera by plotting them on a map and zeros in on the well that caused the problems.

 Syphilis is the AIDS of the 19 th century

 Most of the countries begin to outlaw prostitution

 They also will begin to use quarantine when sickness is present to keep outbreaks from happening

 Death rates drop appreciably