The Isms: 1815 to 1914
The End of Napoleon to the beginning of World War I
Population explodes from 200 million in 1815 to 450 million in 1914.
At first things go back to the way it was before the Revolution
Kings are scared that more Revolutions will occur so they allow Constitutions to give people some rights
There was a sense of vulnerability
There was a sense of tension
There was a sense of apprehension
The Church suffered under the Revolution
The weak hearted dropped away, but in the end, it actually benefitted the church because this left the strong to begin reshaping the church
Ultra-Montanism- making the church powerful again
Recover influence with public
End Cleavage (differences in the church)
Gain concordances with all countries (contracts to practice in those countries)
Begin Catholic political parties
“Old Lights” (Anglicans, Congregationalists,
Presbyterians, and Quakers) start to lose population
“New Lights” (Methodists, Baptists, etc.) all begin to gain followers- Methodists are the largest growing group.
Government tries to regain ties to the church in hopes that they both can go back to the old days where they shared the power. Both want to keep the revolutionary spirit down.
Master Craftsman going out, Factory system coming in.
1815 – 50% of all textiles still handmade. By 1820 98% of all textiles were made in factories.
Railroads become the big business of the day.
Wrenching change to society, it really disrupted it.
People come to the cities which were not prepared for the influx of newcomers. No facilities, no homes, no room in schools, most times not really any work.
The upper middle class starts to become the drivers of manufacturing.
Mass starvation has ended in all of Europeexcept Ireland (1840’s Potato Famine)
Peasants made up 80-90% of population in 1815 by 1914 population was more 50-50.
Death rate going down, Birth rate increasing
(except in Russia still the same -sorry Yulia , and
Irelands Potato Famine kills half of their population)
Even though society would change it takes a while, most still conservative (not wanting to change)
Metternich (Austrian leader) was poster boy for conservatism
Afraid of social revolution
Wanted to keep things the same
“One real problem in Europe- Revolution” he meant social revolution
John Locke was the poster boy for liberalism
Not like today’s liberals
They did not want wholesale change and weren’t all that adaptable
Mostly just want society to become a little more even
Locke’s big idea was that the human experience united us “We are born with a blank slate and experience fills us in”.
Beginning of mass education
Governments are starting to rely on educated people to work within the framework as more democracies emerge
Prussia was the best, Russia was the worst (not really fair, they didn’t have an education system) of the organized countries England was the worst. France was a good middle
Mandatory through 6 th grade
Real curriculum for both sexes
People could work in just about any field, so they all needed education. (Army still held to the old ways with upper class as leaders)
Napoleon starts mandatory education
Kind of modeled after Prussia, kids went through the 6 th grade
Pass/fail- you had to pass tests to continue on in education, if you fail- it was into the trade schools and then jobs.
Very few make it all the way into college, most are out by what we would call middle school.
Had what were called Public (which means private) and Dame (what we would call public) schools.
No mandatory attendance
Most only went through the 3 rd grade
Dame schools were mostly baby-sitting services
Public schools were for the upper class and they were not really governed
Before 1815 you could only be diagnosed in one of four ways
Tumor- you have a growth that could be seen
Solution-cut it off
Humor- some thing was wrong with the fluids in your body
Solution- drain it from your body
Cool it down with water
Miasma- everything else
Variety of things- salves, herbal essences, etc.
First half of century was Gross Anatomy and second half was Pathology (finding out about diseases)
Still have a division between Doctors and
Doctors would diagnose but little else
Surgeons would only cut off/out things, had no real training in medicine
A very few would do both
The measure of how good you were was how fast you were. Man who was considered the best was Dr.
Joseph Lister (yes Listerine) who once cut a man’s leg off in seven seconds (and also three of his assistants fingers)
Two problems with surgery
It was NOT painless- everything was done with the patient awake.
Infection was almost guaranteed
1842- OW Holmes invents ether- it was originally used for dental procedures. This eventually makes surgery painless.
Advances in obstetrics (births)
Dr. Alfred Semelwiess
Follows a midwife who had an excellent record of mothers not dying after birth.
He finds out the only difference between his practice and her practice was that she washed her equipment after each birth and washed her hands after touching any patient.
Virchow, Koch (pronounced Cook), and
Big innovation was improvement in microscope
Makes the connection between sores and bacteria
Koch and Pasteur
Working separately in Germany and France, they begin to isolate pathogens
Koch isolated tuberculosis (1882), Typhis (1883), and
Pasteur isolates anthrax and discovers amino acids, diabetes, then pasteurization saves milk industry.
J. Snow tracks cholera in London to bad well water. He tracked cases of cholera by plotting them on a map and zeros in on the well that caused the problems.
Syphilis is the AIDS of the 19 th century
Most of the countries begin to outlaw prostitution
They also will begin to use quarantine when sickness is present to keep outbreaks from happening
Death rates drop appreciably