Immunity and Genetics a. 1

Immunity and Genetics
1. List at least 5 ways that immunity and genetics are related.
a. 1st line of defense related to genetics
i. skin
ii. mucous membranes
iii. chemicals in tears, saliva and other bodily fluids
b. 2nd line of defense
i. phagocytes
ii. cytokines
iii. Inflammation
1. Phagocytes (engulf invaders)
c. Self vs. nonself
i. Blood type
ii. Rh factor
iii. HLA (Human Leukocyte antigens)- used to identify cell surfaces
d. Humoral response- lymphocytes (white blood cells)
i. Macrophages (degrade bacteria)
ii. B cells
iii. antibodies
iv. memory cells
e. Cellular immune response
i. T cells
ii. cytokines
iii. memory cells
2. Define the following terms
a. Lymphocyte- white blood cell
b. T Cell- type of lymphocyte that produces cytokines and coordinates the immune response
c. Helper T Cells- Lymphocytes that recognize foreign antigens on macrophages, activate B cells
and Cytotoxic T cells, and secrete cytokines
d. Cytotoxic T Cells- lymphocytes that attack nonself cells by binding them and releasing
chemicals that attack the cell
e. B Cell- lymphocyte that secretes antibody proteins in response to nonself antigens displayed on
other immune system cells.
f. Phagocyte- Cells that surround a smaller cell or particle and destroy it
g. Primary Immune Response- response to a first encounter with a foreign antigen.
h. Secondary Immune Response- response to a second or subsequent encounter with a foreign
3. What physically causes allergies?
the body’s overreaction to a normally harmless antigen
4. Can allergies be genetic? Why?
Yes, immune response is controlled by over 20,000 genes
5. How do transplants relate to genetics and immunity?
Immune system recognizes donor tissue as self or nonself. Nonself tissues can be attacked
6. Define the following terms.
a. Autograft-tissue from one part of the body to another
b. Isograft-tissue from an identical twin
c. Allograft- from an individual who is not genetically identical, but same species
d. Xenograft-transplant from one species to another
7. Give 3 real life examples of a xenograft.