Test #2 Study Guide Biol 101 Survey of Biology

Test #2 Study Guide Biol 101 Survey of Biology
Energy and Metabolism
Know the diagram relating the flow of energy from the sun, through photosynthesis, to
cellular respiration. Definition of energy, potential and kinetic energy, different forms of
potential and kinetic energy (especially chemical energy and solar energy). The first and
second laws of thermodynamics. Exergonic and endergonic chemical reactions.
Definition of enzyme. ATP as the cellular “fuel”.
Cellular Respiration
The overall chemical equation of cellular respiration. The relationship between specific
reactants (glucose and O2) and specific products (CO2 and H2O). Definition of oxidation
and reduction. (LEO the lion says GER). Main features of glycolysis, TCA cycle and
electron transport. DO NOT MEMORIZE DETAILS OF PATHWAYS. Know which of
the pathways produce NADH, carbon dioxide and ATP. Know the role of oxygen in
respiration. Know how ATP is synthesized. Heat generation in brown fat. Know what
happens when oxygen is not present (cells use fermentation). Purpose of fermentation
pathway. Know where these reactions take place in an animal cell. Role of insulin in
glucose utilization. Problems that arise from Type I diabetes. Cancer cell metabolism.
The overall chemical equation of photosynthesis. The relationship between specific
reactants and specific products. Properties of light (electromagnetic spectrum). Pigments
(e.g. chlorophyll). The light reaction: How ATP is produced. Know that main products
of the light reaction are ATP and NADPH (same thing as NADH). Know the role of
NADPH as a carrier of electrons. Know where the electron originates (in water). Know
that solar energy boosts the electrons to higher energy levels. The origin of the oxygen
that we breathe. The Calvin cycle: ATP (source of energy), NADPH (source of
electrons) and carbon dioxide (source of carbon atoms) to make glucose. Know where
light reaction and Calvin cycle take place in a plant cell.
Mitotic Cell Division
The equation that relates number of cell divisions to the number of cells generated.
Chromosome structure, homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids. Karyotype.
Haploid, diploid. Aneuploid syndromes. Correlation between maternal age and incidence
of aneuploid syndromes. Purpose of amniocentesis. Stages of the mitotic cell cycle (G1,
S, G2, and M). DNA replication. Most important: understand that mitosis is a cell
division that makes genetically identical daughter cells.