Test #2 Study Guide Biol 101 Survey of Biology Energy and Metabolism Know the diagram relating the flow of energy from the sun, through photosynthesis, to cellular respiration. Definition of energy, potential and kinetic energy, different forms of potential and kinetic energy (especially chemical energy and solar energy). The first and second laws of thermodynamics. Exergonic and endergonic chemical reactions. Definition of enzyme. ATP as the cellular “fuel”. Cellular Respiration The overall chemical equation of cellular respiration. The relationship between specific reactants (glucose and O2) and specific products (CO2 and H2O). Definition of oxidation and reduction. (LEO the lion says GER). Main features of glycolysis, TCA cycle and electron transport. DO NOT MEMORIZE DETAILS OF PATHWAYS. Know which of the pathways produce NADH, carbon dioxide and ATP. Know the role of oxygen in respiration. Know how ATP is synthesized. Heat generation in brown fat. Know what happens when oxygen is not present (cells use fermentation). Purpose of fermentation pathway. Know where these reactions take place in an animal cell. Role of insulin in glucose utilization. Problems that arise from Type I diabetes. Cancer cell metabolism. Photosynthesis The overall chemical equation of photosynthesis. The relationship between specific reactants and specific products. Properties of light (electromagnetic spectrum). Pigments (e.g. chlorophyll). The light reaction: How ATP is produced. Know that main products of the light reaction are ATP and NADPH (same thing as NADH). Know the role of NADPH as a carrier of electrons. Know where the electron originates (in water). Know that solar energy boosts the electrons to higher energy levels. The origin of the oxygen that we breathe. The Calvin cycle: ATP (source of energy), NADPH (source of electrons) and carbon dioxide (source of carbon atoms) to make glucose. Know where light reaction and Calvin cycle take place in a plant cell. Mitotic Cell Division The equation that relates number of cell divisions to the number of cells generated. Chromosome structure, homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids. Karyotype. Haploid, diploid. Aneuploid syndromes. Correlation between maternal age and incidence of aneuploid syndromes. Purpose of amniocentesis. Stages of the mitotic cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and M). DNA replication. Most important: understand that mitosis is a cell division that makes genetically identical daughter cells.