Unit 10 (still) Australia, New Zealand, Oceania and Antarctica AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND Physical Geography Australia is smallest continent, largest island. • Mountains in east, dry interior, tropical grasslands in north. • Great Barrier Reef along northeast coastline. • Ayers Rock in center of continent. New Zealand is two main islands, both very tectonically active. • Climate is cool and wet, mostly mixed forests. • Many volcanos and mountains, glaciers at altitude. Human Geography European Settlement Australia • • • • • Discovered by Dutch in 1606 Colonized by Britain in 1788 Penal Colony – island for prisoners Gave Britain a Pacific Ocean Naval base Colonists vs. Aborigines constant disputes. New Zealand • Colonized by Hunters and Whalers from Europe, America, and Australia • 1840 Treaty of Waitangi – Signed by Maori – Britain controls NZ – Control vs. Governorship – Land Wars 1845-1847, 1860-1872 Modern Australia AUSTRALIA is a wealthy, stable republics with few major problems compared to other parts of the world. • 23 million people (90% European, 8% Asia, 2% Aborigine) • Economy based on tourism, ranching, export of resources and food, import of energy • Issues with immigration of Asian population, and aboriginal rights • Many types of animals found only in Australia, such as kangaroo, koala, and platypus, dingo, wombat. Aborigines Australia – Settled by the Aborigines about 40,000 years ago. Arrived from Asia, had stone age technology at time of contact. • Roughly 500 groups speaking 200 languages, less than a million people total. • Animist religion, with belief in the “Dreaming” a complex set of myths and practices that establish the world and Aborigine culture. • Still largely separated from Australian society, issues with discrimination and loss of ancestral lands. Rabbit Invasion • 1859 Thomas Austin brings 24 rabbits to Australia to hunt for food • 1900 Rabbit population = 1 Billion or more! • Rabbits are heavy grazers, and strip foilage. • Australia tried importing predators, fences, and Tularemia infections to control rabbits Modern New Zealand NEW ZEALAND is a wealthy, stable republic with few major problems compared to other parts of the world. • 4 million people (65% European, 15% Maori, 20% Asian or Pacific, >1% Hobbits, Elves and Orcs) • Economy based on film industry, tourism, resources, and agriculture. • Issues with Maori rights, fishing and resource competition with other nations Maori New Zealand – Settled by the Maori about 1000 years ago from Polynesia • Divided into various clans, claimed territory and warred with each other. Even after contact, they maintained a fierce warrior culture. • Maori traditionally wear extensive tattoos, called “Moko” to show status. • Though a minority, Maori are a large part of NZ culture, such as the “AllBlacks” rugby team. OCEANIA AND ANTARCTICA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF OCEANIA • Enormous region of the Pacific ocean, with thousands of scattered islands. • Islands are volcanic, coral atolls, or both. • Islands divided into three groups: – Melanesia – named for “dark skin of inhabitants”; includes New Guinea – Micronesia – named for “tiny islands”; includes Guam, Marshall Islands – Polynesia – named for “many islands”; includes Hawaii, Samoa, Tahiti Vocabulary • • • • Archipelago – chain of islands low island – made of coral reefs high island – created by volcanoes Atoll – coral island that surrounds a lagoon HUMAN GEOGRAPHY OF OCEANIA • Settled thousands of years ago by boat from Asia. Explored by Europeans in the 1500’s, later settled for agriculture. • Site of most of the big battles of WW2 in the Pacific. Gained independence from Europe and the USA in 1960’s and 1970’s. • Modern population is less than 10 million, depending on how the region is counted. Most countries are poor and underdeveloped, relying on resort tourism for their economies. Antarctica PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ANTARCTICA • Coldest, driest, and windiest continent. • The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89 °C (−129 °F) • Most is covered by a sheet of ice over a mile thick, which has 70% of Earth’s fresh water. • Life is abundant along the coasts, but the interior is a cold desert. • Still mostly unexplored and little known. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY OF ANTARCTICA • No permanent human presence in Antarctica. • Between 1000 to 5000 people live there for short periods, living in various research stations. • No government, other than 1959 Antarctic Treaty: No mining, no military bases or weapons, only peaceful scientific research. • Various countries claim portions of Antarctica for their own use, but these areas overlap and are generally not recognized as official.