Egypt Creativity for Eternity Use this Website to answer question and for enrichment. http://discoveringegypt.com/ Egypt • Began about 3500BC • Independent for 2000 years • 31 dynasties – 4 great kingdoms or periods • • • • Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom Late Period (nonindependent) • Geography was a blessing and a downfall Geography and Stability The Nile River • Predictable and gentle flooding – Replenished the soil, thus allowing for 3000 years of continual planting – Consistent flood times – Consistent flood amounts • Planned irrigation – Allowed for enough crops for a very large population TransportationNorth/South Geography and Stability Isolation • Only realistic route for an invader is over the Isthmus of Suez • Egypt able to defend it • Egypt was not influenced by outsiders for 1000s of years • Even when Egypt became dominated by outside rulers, it held onto its own laws, culture, religion and kings. Geography Cont. • Protected from invaders by natural barriersName all of them• Natural resources- Name a few • Explain this quote-”The Gift of The Nile” Creativity • Creativity and Change – Old Kingdom was uniting and conquering – Temples and religion demanded creativity – Surplus of labor. The Pharaoh put them to work on elaborate construction projects. • Stagnant but Stable – Middle and New Kingdoms – Fear of upsetting the profitable system, Egypt stopped creativity – Delicate balance between gods, nature, and choices of the people – Pharaohs lost the ability to bring change Pre-Dynastic Period 3500-3100 B.C. • Time of tribal and nomadic wanderings • The Egypt territory was divided roughly to upper and lower Egypt • Simple boats made of reeds sailed on the Nile Old Kingdom (3100 - 2200 BC) • Menes combined the upper and lower kingdoms into one (powerful ruler) • Memphis-capital • Creativity: – Papyrus – Hieroglyphics – Pyramids (Architecture and Engineering) – Religion (Pharaoh was part god) – Calendar – Mathematics – Art Old Kingdom (3100 - 2200 BC) Papyrus and Hieroglyphics • Papyrus first made during time of Menes – Easy material for writing • Hieroglyphics: Sacred writings – Used for over 2000 years – Done by priests – Usually concerned Pharaohs Old Kingdom (3100 - 2200 BC) Pyramids: Pharaoh burial place • Built by both slaves and Egyptians – Created a strong relationship between the people and the government – Make-work projects • Extensive engineering used to build pyramids larger and higher – Built pyramids of Giza and step pyramids Old Kingdom (3100 - 2200 BC) Religion: • Principal gods: Osiris (father), Isis (mother), Horus (son), Set (evil), Amon-Re, Aten (later) Old Kingdom (3100 - 2200 BC) Religion: • Be buried on Egyptian soil • Be properly prepared (embalming) • Pyramid built for afterlife • Must preserve name in writing • Judgment and afterlife • What are negative confessions? • What are the Ka and the Ba? O my heart of my being! Do not rise up against me as a witness, Do not oppose me in the tribunal, do not rebel against me before the guardian of the scales! Old Kingdom (3100 - 2200 BC) Calendar and Mathematics • Created a calendar with 12 months of 30 days each, which equals 360 days a year. To match solar year they had 5 days of holidays at the end of the year. • Created a numbering system based on 10 • Used accumulation and place holders Old Kingdom (3100 - 2200 BC) Art • Representational rather than realistic – Standardized poses – Generic faces Old Kingdom (3100 - 2200 BC) The Old Kingdom was the Golden Age for Egypt. Why? • Energy from forming a new country? • Innovation from conquering? • Leadership of Pharaohs – Strong leaders who know how to motivate their people are capable of great accomplishments Middle Kingdom (2000 - 1800 BC) Creativity? Not much. • Tried to recapture Old Kingdom’s glory – Not able to build a conquering army – No massive public works projects (lack of funds) – Capital moved to Thebes for new temple, it was never completed. • Weak Pharaohs forced to share power with priests and landholders • Ended with an invasion – Invasion by the Hyksos (Shepherd Kings or Semitic people) – Hyksos ruled from 1800 to 1550 BC – Joseph, son of Jacob, is believed to have lived during this time. New Kingdom (1550 - 1050 BC) • Began with overthrow of the Hyksos. The pharaoh knew not Joseph (Exodus 1:8) • Ended with the Third Intermediate Period, led by foreign rulers and internal fighting • Creativity – Temples • Luxor and Karnak – Strong pharoahs Luxor Karnak Temple New Kingdom (1550 - 1050 BC) • Strong Pharaohs – Akhenaton (monotheistic) Why was he significant? New Kingdom (1550 - 1050 BC) • Strong Pharaohs What did she do that was – Queen Hatshepsut beneficial for Egypt? New Kingdom (1550 - 1050 BC) • Strong Pharaohs – Ramses II (military) – Moses' enemy? List Ramses’ achievements and failures during and after his reign. How did Moses contribute to law and his people? Late Period (700 - 332 BC) • • • • Capitals – Tanis and then Alexandria War – internal and external Government fractured Ruled by outside rulers – Libyans – Persians – Greeks (Ptolemy) • Egypt given as a gift to Ptolemy, a general to Alexander the Great • Last of the Ptolemies was Cleopatra – Romans-When did the Romans take over? Egypt – Overall Creativity • Development and organization period was high creativity • Later periods were weak kings, strong priests, and low creativity – Trying to move to the past – Religious conservatism – Isolation • What societies today have these characteristics? Understanding Questions • The culture that developed in Egypt was unique, largely because of • Tell me how the Egyptian civilization and people were different from their neighbors the Mesopotamians • How did Egypt’s environment help develop such a unique culture? Understanding Questions • List major contributions from the Egyptians-use PowerPoint, internet and/or Mr. Hammer for sources. The Greatest Discovery!