Egypt ppt. 2014

Creativity for Eternity
Use this Website to answer
question and for enrichment.
• Began about 3500BC
• Independent for 2000
• 31 dynasties
– 4 great kingdoms or
Old Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom
Late Period (nonindependent)
• Geography was a
blessing and a downfall
Geography and Stability
The Nile River
• Predictable and gentle
– Replenished the soil, thus
allowing for 3000 years of
continual planting
– Consistent flood times
– Consistent flood amounts
• Planned irrigation
– Allowed for enough crops
for a very large
Geography and Stability
• Only realistic route for an
invader is over the
Isthmus of Suez
• Egypt able to defend it
• Egypt was not influenced
by outsiders for 1000s of
• Even when Egypt
became dominated by
outside rulers, it held
onto its own laws,
culture, religion and
Geography Cont.
• Protected from invaders by natural barriersName all of them• Natural resources- Name a few
• Explain this quote-”The Gift of The Nile”
• Creativity and Change
– Old Kingdom was uniting and conquering
– Temples and religion demanded creativity
– Surplus of labor. The Pharaoh put them to
work on elaborate construction projects.
• Stagnant but Stable
– Middle and New Kingdoms
– Fear of upsetting the profitable system,
Egypt stopped creativity
– Delicate balance between gods, nature, and
choices of the people
– Pharaohs lost the ability to bring change
Pre-Dynastic Period
3500-3100 B.C.
• Time of tribal and nomadic wanderings
• The Egypt territory was divided roughly
to upper and lower Egypt
• Simple boats made of reeds sailed on
the Nile
Old Kingdom
(3100 - 2200 BC)
• Menes combined the
upper and lower kingdoms
into one (powerful ruler)
• Memphis-capital
• Creativity:
– Papyrus
– Hieroglyphics
– Pyramids (Architecture and
– Religion (Pharaoh was part
– Calendar
– Mathematics
– Art
Old Kingdom
(3100 - 2200 BC)
Papyrus and
• Papyrus first made during
time of Menes
– Easy material for writing
• Hieroglyphics: Sacred
– Used for over 2000 years
– Done by priests
– Usually concerned
Old Kingdom
(3100 - 2200 BC)
Pharaoh burial place
• Built by both slaves
and Egyptians
– Created a strong
relationship between the
people and the
– Make-work projects
• Extensive engineering
used to build pyramids
larger and higher
– Built pyramids of Giza
and step pyramids
Old Kingdom
(3100 - 2200 BC)
• Principal gods: Osiris (father), Isis
(mother), Horus (son), Set (evil),
Amon-Re, Aten (later)
Old Kingdom
(3100 - 2200 BC)
• Be buried on Egyptian soil
• Be properly prepared (embalming)
• Pyramid built for afterlife
• Must preserve name in writing
• Judgment and afterlife
• What are negative confessions?
• What are the Ka and the Ba?
O my heart of my being!
Do not rise up against me as a witness,
Do not oppose me in the tribunal,
do not rebel against me before the guardian of the scales!
Old Kingdom
(3100 - 2200 BC)
Calendar and Mathematics
• Created a calendar with 12 months of 30 days
each, which equals 360 days a year. To match
solar year they had 5 days of holidays at the
end of the year.
• Created a numbering
system based on 10
• Used accumulation and
place holders
Old Kingdom
(3100 - 2200 BC)
• Representational rather
than realistic
– Standardized poses
– Generic faces
Old Kingdom
(3100 - 2200 BC)
The Old Kingdom was the Golden Age for
Egypt. Why?
• Energy from forming a new country?
• Innovation from conquering?
• Leadership of Pharaohs
– Strong leaders who know how to motivate
their people are capable of great
Middle Kingdom
(2000 - 1800 BC)
Creativity? Not much.
• Tried to recapture Old Kingdom’s glory
– Not able to build a conquering army
– No massive public works projects (lack of funds)
– Capital moved to Thebes for new temple, it was never
• Weak Pharaohs forced to share power with
priests and landholders
• Ended with an invasion
– Invasion by the Hyksos (Shepherd Kings or Semitic
– Hyksos ruled from 1800 to 1550 BC
– Joseph, son of Jacob, is believed to have lived during
this time.
New Kingdom
(1550 - 1050 BC)
• Began with overthrow of the Hyksos.
The pharaoh knew not Joseph (Exodus
• Ended with the Third Intermediate
Period, led by foreign rulers and
internal fighting
• Creativity
– Temples
• Luxor and Karnak
– Strong pharoahs
Karnak Temple
New Kingdom
(1550 - 1050 BC)
• Strong Pharaohs
– Akhenaton
Why was he significant?
New Kingdom
(1550 - 1050 BC)
• Strong Pharaohs
What did she do that was
– Queen Hatshepsut beneficial for Egypt?
New Kingdom
(1550 - 1050 BC)
• Strong Pharaohs
– Ramses II (military)
– Moses' enemy?
List Ramses’ achievements and failures
during and after his reign.
How did Moses contribute to law and his
Late Period
(700 - 332 BC)
Capitals – Tanis and then Alexandria
War – internal and external
Government fractured
Ruled by outside rulers
– Libyans
– Persians
– Greeks (Ptolemy)
• Egypt given as a gift to Ptolemy, a general to
Alexander the Great
• Last of the Ptolemies was Cleopatra
– Romans-When did the Romans take over?
Egypt – Overall Creativity
• Development and organization period
was high creativity
• Later periods were weak kings, strong
priests, and low creativity
– Trying to move to the past
– Religious conservatism
– Isolation
• What societies today have these
Understanding Questions
• The culture that developed in Egypt was
unique, largely because of
• Tell me how the Egyptian civilization and
people were different from their neighbors
the Mesopotamians
• How did Egypt’s environment help develop
such a unique culture?
Understanding Questions
• List major contributions from the
Egyptians-use PowerPoint, internet and/or
Mr. Hammer for sources.
The Greatest Discovery!