Union Victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg Lee Invades the North • – After Battle of Chancellorville, where Confederates accidentally shot General Stonewall Jackson, Lee decides to go North again. Crosses into PA in 1863. Battle of Gettysburg • July 1-3. 90,000 Union vs. 75,000 Confederates. Union forces struggling to maintain position at Cemetery Ridge. – Pickett’s Charge: July 3. Conf. Gen. George Pickett orders direct charge at the center of the Union line… uphill total failure. Conf. retreat… once again, Union fails to go after Conf. Army and Lincoln is furious. – North = 23,000 casualties (1/4) and South = 28,000 (1/3). Brokenhearted Lee brings Army back to VA. Conf. will never recover from this loss. Siege at Vicksburg • A year earlier, Grant’s river victories had opened most of Mississippi River. When direct attacks on last stronghold failed, Grant decided on a long siege of Vicksburg, MI. – May-July 1863 – Union surrounds city, cutting it off from food and supplies. Townspeople move into caves to protect themselves from constant bombardment. After month and a half, city surrenders. – This victory fulfilled major part of Anaconda Plan… Union controls entire Miss. River South now split in two!