Chapter 2 Lesson 3 and 4 The War for Independence The Opposing Sides British in New York Harbor. 32,000 men British troops called “redcoats” Disciplined, well trained and well equipped Continental Army was inexperienced and poorly equipped. 230,000 men, 20,000 at a time Continental Congress issued paper money. “Continentals” not backed by gold, or silver. Robert Morris, wealthy Pennsylvanian merchant and banker pledged large amounts of money for the war effort. Opposing Sides Convinced Congress to create a Bank of North America to finance the military. Militia’s used guerrilla warfare that was difficult to defeat. British are not united at home. Many British merchants and members of Congress opposed the war. British had to win quick and cheap. US didn’t have to beat the British they just had to survive till British went broke. French, Dutch, and Spainsh were all eager to exploit Britain’s problems. Patriots could find allies. Opposing Sides British had to convince the American’s they were hopeless. British also had to make it safe to surrender. British General Howe had a 2 part strategy: 1) Large number of troops to capture New York City. This would separate New England from the South and demonstrate to Americans that they could not win. 2) Diplomatic: he invited delegates from the Continental Congress to a peace conference. Anyone who surrendered and served their loyalty to the King would be pardoned. Howe had no power to negotiate. Battles in the North British capture New York City and use it as their head quarters. Washington sent Capt. Nathan Hale to spy on the British. He was caught by the British and hanged. Hale stated “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” Crossing the Delaware Washington tried a winter attack This was not common considering the weather and scarce supplies. Dec. 25, 1776 Washington led 24,000 men across the Delaware River and attacked a camp at Trenton. Washington forces scattered 3 British regiments near Princeton. Philadelphia Falls House defeated Washington at the Battle of Brandywine Creek and captured Philadelphia. Failed to destroy the Continental Congress and the Continental Army. Continental Army was set up at Valley Forge for the winter. Marquis de Lafayette joined Washington at Valley Forge. Helped train and boost morale. Weather and food shortages killed 2,000 men. The Battle of Saratoga June 1777 General Burgoyne and about 9,500 troops marched from Quebec to New York. 900 troops head to St. Lawrence river 1,000 Iroquis also joined to head toward Albany The Battle of Saratoga Burgoyne seized Fort Ticonderoga. The Congress fired that regions commander and replaced him with General Horatio Gates. British troops and Iroquois forces driven back by Benedict Arnold: who was at this time an American General. Burgoyne retreats to Saratoga October 17, 1777 Burgoyne surrenders to Gates. 5,000 plus British taken as POW Ben Franklin goes to France in September to ask for troops. The French now convinced Colonists could win. The War in the West 1778 Patriot General George Rogers Clark took 175 troops down the Ohio River and captured several troops. By Feb. 1779 British surrendered VA and North Carolina British defeated Militias set fire to hundreds of Cherokee towns The War at Sea Fought at sea as well as land. American warship attacked British merchant ships. Millions of dollars of cargo had been seized harming Britain’s trade and economy. American naval officer John Paul Jones: attacked the British warship Serapis but Jones nearly got sunk. Jones did not surrender. Jones replied, “ I have not yet begun to fight.” The British surrendered. British defeat at Saratoga, General Howe resigned. Washington orders soldiers at Valley Forge to intercept the British. Clinton began a campaign in the South against the Americans. n the South The Struggles in the Carolina’s Dec 1778 3,500 British troops captured Savannah. Capture South Carolina May 12, 1780 American surrendered About 5,500 Americans taken POWs. Greatest American defeat in the war. Charles Cornwallis is in command in the South of the British troops. Continental Congress send General Horatio Gates to defend South Carolina. His attempt to destroy the British failed. Battle of Yorktown 1781 Cornwallis marched into VA where he joined forces with a traitor, Benedict Arnold. British begin to conquer VA. Cornwallis retreats to Yorktown to protect his men and supplies. Washington’s men march on New York city with 6,000 French men. Washington cancels attack after news the French navy is coming to attack after news the French navy is coming to help. They head to Yorktown instead. Cut off supplies to Cornwallis and prevented him escaping by sea. Battle of Yorktown Sept 28, 1781 Yorktown was surrounded by American’s and French forces. October 14 Alexander Hamilton led an attack the captured key British defense. 3 days later Cornwallis wants to negotiate Oct 19 British surrender. Treaty of Paris John Adams, Ben Franklin, John Jay conducted most of the negotiations for the US. Sept. 3 1783, 3 treaties were signed Britain and US, Britain and France and Spain. Final agreements “Treay of Paris:” Britain recognized the United States of America as an independent nation, with the Mississippi River as its western border. Florida goes back to Spain. France recieves colonies in Africa and the Caribbean. Nov. 24, 1783 the final troops leave New York City. New Political Ideas The states est. a republic Elected officials Even with the contradictions (race, gender, class) republican ideas begun to change American society New State Constitutions Adam’s Democracy: society where the majority rules. Feared that in a pure democracy minority groups would not have their rights protected. Government needs “checks and balances” Separation of Powers Legislatures needs 2 house: Senate and an Assembly Voting Rights Expand Equality Men have the right to vote Many states allowed all white men who paid taxes to vote. Some states you had to own property Veterans got land grants Freedom of Religion Thomas Jefferson wrote the VA Statue for Religious Freedom, enacted in 1786. Declared that VA no longer had an official church and that the state could not collect taxes for the churches. Women at War Contributed on both the home front and the battle field. Ran family farms Traveled cooking, washing, and nursing. Spies and couriers Some fought Could now easily get divorced and gained access to education. More women learn to read. African Americans 1,000’s gained their freedom Many planters freed enslaved people who agreed to fight the British Washington let African Americans join the Continental Army African Americans North wants to end slavery Some African Americans sued to get Freedom Low level jobs Many African Americans moved North to find jobs. South relied on enslaved labor to sustain agricultural labor. South showed no interest in ending slavery. VA took steps to end slavery. 1782 State passed a law encouraging manumission, voluntary freeing of enslaved people, especially those who fought. Native Americans Did not help most Iroquois Confederacy weakened Not recognized fro contributions The Loyalist Flee Loyalist found themselves shunned by friends, neighbors, and state governments seized their property. 100,000 left the United States. Moved to British North America (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec) American Painters John Trumball and Charles Wilson Peale contributed to American Identity. Trumball known for depiction of important events. Peale was a soldier known for his portraits of Washington and other. Changes in Education Public education is critical States funded universities Elementary schools instituted an American centered style of teaching Noah Webster believed Americans needed to develop their own educational system. American English.