Grammar Jammer Review! Meet Fuzzy Worth Grammar King What is a simple sentence ? What is a simple sentence ? A sentence consisting of a subject and a predicate. What is a noun? Person,place or thing. What is a verb? Action word What is a subject? a person or thing that is being discussed, described, or dealt with. What is a predicate? • It explains what the subject is doing. • Subject- one underline • Predicate-two underlines https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=qtDwgQd8tTI Bonus Points 1)You need to find a journal entry that you think holds lots of subjects and predicates. 2)Highlight any subject and any predicate you’ve written. 3)Today I will take a daily grade on your grammar jammer skills. -Find subjects and predicates and receive 2-100’s as a daily grade for proving your skills. What is a compound sentence ? What is a compound sentence ? A sentence consisting of a subject, predicate and a conjunction. What do you notice and know about these words? • • • • • Simple Sentences? Independent Clause? Compound Sentences? Commas? FANBOYS? FANBOYS • For • And • Nor • But • Or • Yet • So (conjunctions) AAAWWUBIS Fancy name=Subordinating Conjunctions • • • • • • • • • As Although After While When Until Because Before If Since FANBOYS • For, so: Shows a cause-effect relationship • And: joins things or ideas that are alike or similar, implies a continuation of a thought. • Nor: continues a negative thought. • Or: Indicates a choice between things or ideas. Sentence, F A N B O Y S Sentence. What is a preposition? A preposition links nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words in a sentence. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without." Phrases Clauses What are helping verbs? A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. Writing Strong Sentences • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • For Main (Independent) and Subordinating (Dependent) Clauses Study: Students identify the subject and predicate in each clause in a complex sentence Students underline the main clause in a complex sentence Students explain the relationship between the main and the dependent clauses in a complex sentence Students find and explain examples of simple sentences in their self-selected text. Commas From Jeff Anderson’s Mechanically Inclined: All of Section 2 – Pause and Effect: Crafting Sentences with Commas (begins on page 83) For Comma Study: Students identify purpose of a comma in a sentence. Students replace all missing commas in a sentence (removed by teacher) Students model sentence patterns with a focus on commas Students find and explain examples of commas in sentences in their self-selected text. Parallel Structure Students identify parallel structures in texts Students take a sentence without parallel structure and create it. Students model sentence patterns with a focus on parallel structure Students find and explain examples of parallel structures in sentences in their self-selected text. Turn to the back of your writer’s notebook. I DECLARE: Compound sentences are an essential tool in my writing toolbox. As I mature I need more sophisticated ways to express my developing thoughts. Ellipses • Rule 1: Many writers use an ellipsis whether the omission occurs at the beginning of a sentence, in the middle of a sentence, or between sentences. • A common way to delete the beginning of a sentence is to follow the opening quotation mark with an ellipsis, plus a bracketed capital letter: Ellipses • Rule 2. :Ellipses can express hesitation, changes of mood, suspense, or thoughts trailing off. Writers also use ellipses to indicate a pause or wavering in an otherwise straightforward sentence. • Examples: I don't know…I'm not sure. Pride is one thing, but what happens if she…? He said, "I…really don't…understand this." Sentence Fragments • Since he came to New York. • Because my dog loves it. • Unless you see me. Is there anything wrong with these sentences? All of these sentences end too quickly. After reading these sentences, the reader asks questions because he/she needs more information. Sentence Fragment The Reader Asks... Since he came to New York. Since he came, what (has he been doing)? Because my dog loves it. Because the dog loves it, (so what)? Unless you see me. Unless you see me, what (will happen)? Subject + Verb Remember us? • Okay, dependent or independent clauses need to have a subject (noun) and predicate (verb.) • A subject is the noun that is doing the main action in the sentence. • Bob cried. Bob is the subject. • The predicate-verb is cried. Independent Clauses and Dependent Clauses • Clauses can be independent (complete) or dependent (incomplete). If you add an AAAWWUBBIS word to the beginning of a independent clause, it becomes dependent. Examples: • Ricky broke both legs = independent clause • When Ricky broke both legs = dependent clause AAAWWUBBIS! • • • • • • • • • • A....after A....although A....as W...while W...when U....until B....before B....because I......if S....since AAAWWUBBIS + clause + comma + clause + period. Subordinating Conjunctions -join a dependent clause to an independent clause * If an AWUBIS is the 1st word in a sentence, it causes a comma. After Before Although As Because While When If Until Unless Since So AAAWWUBBIS + clause + comma + clause + period (full stop). Examples: • If you do not understand the directions, you can read them again. • Before you write the sentence, you should read other people's sentences. • After you have read them all, you can try to use a different AAAWWUBBIS word. • Although you may not understand all this, you can follow the examples. Commas Rules • Use commas in compound sentences. • Use commas after introductory elements. • Use commas in nonrestrictive elements. • Use commas to set off additions at the end of a sentence. Commas Ways • Commas should not be used to set off nonessential information. Student error: Usher a real fine guy, sings so sweet. Meet the Interrupters • Interrupters, or embedded details, add information to a sentence. • The interrupter sentence pattern gives the writer the option of adding information, a sort of double exposure of the preceding noun. It gives more detail to the reader. Examples • And she didn’t want to sit next to Frank Pearl, who ate paste, in class. (pg 9) Judy Moody Visual Scaffolding Sent , interrupter, ence. Nonrestrictive elements • Describes a word whose meaning is already clear without the additional words. It is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. It is set off with commas. NON RESTRICTIVE ELEMENTS • A nonrestrictive element describes a word whose meaning is already clear without the additional words. It is not essential to the meaning of the sentence and is set off with commas. Example: The children needed sturdy shoes, which were expensive. • In this sentence we learn an extra fact—the shoes were expensive. That phrase merely Class Partner Action: 1st: Create 3 sentences using interrupters. 2nd: Trade your sentences with a partner. 3rd : Identify the interrupter. To emphasize the break more strongly, use dashes to separate the interrupter from the rest of the sentence. It looks like this… Where are the interrupters? • That chocolate-broccoli muffin, though a good source of vitamin C, will upset Frank's stomach this early in the morning. • My brother's seven-foot python, aptly named Squeeze, slithered out the open back door and frightened Mrs. Russell, our next-door neighbor, nearly to death. • That chocolate-broccoli muffin—though a good source of vitamin C—will upset Frank's stomach this early in the morning. • My brother's seven-foot python—aptly named Squeeze—slithered out the open back door and frightened Mrs. Russell, our nextdoor neighbor, nearly to death. Hey you, Only write when you see me. Plus, whenever you see me you should only write what is necessary! Got it? Get it? Good! Let’s go!!! Note taker’s shine!! Love ya, Fuzzy Worth Grammar King The Semicolon Supercomma!!! The Semicolon • A dot suspended over a comma-shaped mark (;) • It separates two independent clauses or a list of items that already contain commas. When items in a series contain commas, use a semicolon for clarity. Student Error Alberto shouldn’t have gone in the water, I told him not to. Better Example Tonight, though, there seems to be a delay; I pick up from the chatter that something special is going on. Grab your book. Now find two or more sentences that are connected. Try to understand how the semicolons are used. You have 5 min. The Colon • Consist of two dots, one above the other. • The colon is like a drum roll announcing what will follow. • A complete sentence may end with a colon if there is a summary, idea, or list that follows. • The colon sets readers up to anticipate what follows, so it better not let the reader down. • Generally, the colon doesn’t follow a verb. • Capitalize the word after a colon only if it’s proper noun or the start of a complete sentence. Student Error Then there I was: the bad son who didn’t watch after his little brother. Better Example Today is my birthday: Nothing can ruin this day. Subordinating Conjunctions after so that than that though although as because before even if even though if in order that once provided that rather than since unless until when whenever where whereas wherever whether while why Grab your book. Now find two or more sentences that are connected. Try to understand how the colons are used. You have 5 min. The Dash -• Used to set off information in a sentence with a dramatic flair. • It may set off parenthetical information or a list. Example: Rushing, rushing, rushing, waiting, waiting, waiting– swinging. • In a vast open space—greater than Stromford’s entire commons—buildings pressed in on all sides. The Hyphen Some words just belong together. The Hyphen • A hyphen is a short horizontal line that joins adjectives or words to create one concept or unit. • It’s often referred to as a dash-it is not, it is a hyphen. • Used to connect words that the writer wants to show are related. • Enhances and clarifies a description. Writers use hyphens to: 1) Join compound adjectives before a noun. (hard-working student) 2) Join compound nouns and two-word and multiple-word concepts (mother-in-law, over-the-counter, twelve-year-old, knowhow, skin-deep). 3) Add a prefix to a word when clarity is needed or to avoid doubling vowels (anti-intellectual ). Writers use hyphens to: 4) Dividing lettered words (T-shirt, L-shaped, Xray, U-turn) 5) Divide a word between syllables at the end of a line: when in doubt about hyphen action, check your dictionary. Rule 1 • To check whether a compound noun is two words, one word, or hyphenated, you may need to look it up in the dictionary. If you can't find the word in the dictionary, treat the noun as separate words. Examples: eyewitness, eye shadow, eye-opener NOTE: All these words had to be looked up in the dictionary to know what to do with them! • Most sources no longer recommend hyphenating paired nationalities (African American, Italian American) • Generally, hyphenate between two or more adjectives when they come before a noun and act as a single idea. • Examples: friendly-looking man (compound adjective in front of a noun) • friendly little girl (not a compound adjective) • brightly lit room (Brightly is an adverb describing lit, not an adjective.) • Examples: The well-known actress accepted her award. Well is an adverb followed by another descriptive word. They combine to form one idea in front of the noun. • The actress who accepted her award was well known. Well known follows the noun it describes, so no hyphen is used. • A long-anticipated decision was finally made. He got a much-needed haircut yesterday. His haircut was much needed. What do you notice about the author’s use of commas in the following 6 sentences? GRAMMAR JAMMER EXTREME Section A 1. I love teaching, and I love being at Carpenter Middle School. Walking is something I enjoy doing, yet I should find time to run. We will either go to Austin, or Fort Worth for my birthday. Section B 2. Psyche asked that her family be brought to her, and Cupid unwillingly agreed. 3. Aurora and Tithonus were blissfully happy, but then something went wrong. 4. Tithonus became a grasshopper, for on quiet evenings you can still hear his eerie cry. Section C 5. Being a great sister to my younger siblings is something I strive to do, but sometimes they do not seem to want to take my advice as their wiser mentor. In college I majored in Communication Studies, yet minored in Education so that I could be a community leader. Lisa is my best friend from high school, and she just got a new job teaching at an elementary school in Highland Park, Texas. Section D • 6. Although baking is fun, cleaning up is not. When I was young, I liked swinging at my grandma’s. After I turn 15, I hope to join a local volunteer group. Examples 1)We walked up the wide staircase hand in hand and through the door, which closed by itself. 2) And what she carried up and up with her was a buxom superstructure, firm shoulders, a straight sharp nose, full cheeks slightly molded by a curved line along the nostrils, thin lips that moved like steel springs, and a high forehead topped by hair gathered in a bun. 1. We walked up the wide staircase hand in hand and through the door, which closed by itself. a. I notice that the comma is being used to join two complete sentences into a compound sentence. b. I notice that the comma is being used to separate the introductory phrase or clause or transition from the independent clause that follows. c.I notice that the comma is being used to set off additional, non-essential information 3) She, too, sat down and the questions and answers began by way of our interpreter. 4) During the next few weeks, Miss Ryan overcame my fears of tall energetic teachers as she bent over my desk to help me with a word in the pre-primer. 5) Our assortment of nationalities included Koreans, Yugoslavs, Poles, Irish, and home-grown Americans. 6) Miss Ryan took me to a seat at the front of the room, and I shrank into it. 3. She, too, sat down and the questions and answers began by way of our interpreter. X) I notice that the comma is being used to set off additions at the end of the sentence. Y) I notice that the comma is being used to separate items in a series. Z) I notice that the comma is being used to set apart certain adverbs that tell how something is happening. 4. During the next few weeks, Miss Ryan overcame my fears of tall energetic teachers as she bent over my desk to help me with a word in the pre-primer. Y) I notice that the comma is being used to set off additions at the end of the sentence. X) I notice that the comma is being used to separate the introductory phrase or clause or transition from the independent clause that follows. Z) I notice that the comma is being used to separate items in a series. • ` 5. Our assortment of nationalities included Koreans, Yugoslavs, Poles, Irish, and homegrown Americans. • • • I notice that the comma is being used to separate the introductory phrase or clause or transition from the independent clause that follows. I notice that the comma is being used to set apart certain adverbs that tell how something is happening. I notice that the comma is being used to separate items in a series. 6. Miss Ryan took me to a seat at the front of the room, and I shrank into it. • • I notice that the comma is being used to join two complete sentences into a compound sentence. • I notice that the comma is being used to separate the introductory phrase or clause or transition from the independent clause that follows. • I notice that the comma is being used to set off additional, non-essential information. What do you notice about the author’s use of semicolons in the following 2 sentences from Crispin? 7) That means he may be killed on sight, by anyone; if he wishes to remain alive, he must flee his tiny village. 8) You mean you want to hear something interesting? Like how I lived in San Francisco, California; New York, New York; and Paris, France?