File - Mrs. Waterman's Classes

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Grammar
Jammer
Review!
Meet Fuzzy Worth
Grammar King
What is a
simple
sentence ?
What is a simple
sentence ?
A sentence consisting of a
subject and a predicate.
What is a noun?
Person,place or thing.
What is a verb?
Action word
What is a subject?
a person or thing that is
being discussed, described,
or dealt with.
What is a
predicate?
• It explains what the
subject is doing.
• Subject- one underline
• Predicate-two underlines
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=qtDwgQd8tTI
Bonus Points
1)You need to find a journal entry that you
think holds lots of subjects and predicates.
2)Highlight any subject and any predicate
you’ve written.
3)Today I will take a daily grade on your
grammar jammer skills.
-Find subjects and predicates and receive
2-100’s as a daily grade for proving your skills.
What is a
compound
sentence ?
What is a
compound
sentence ?
A sentence consisting of a
subject, predicate and a
conjunction.
What do you notice and
know about these words?
•
•
•
•
•
Simple Sentences?
Independent Clause?
Compound Sentences?
Commas?
FANBOYS?
FANBOYS
• For
• And
• Nor
• But
• Or
• Yet
• So
(conjunctions)
AAAWWUBIS
Fancy name=Subordinating Conjunctions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
As
Although
After
While
When
Until
Because Before
If
Since
FANBOYS
• For, so: Shows a cause-effect
relationship
• And: joins things or ideas that are alike or
similar, implies a continuation of a thought.
• Nor: continues a negative
thought.
• Or: Indicates a choice between things or
ideas.
Sentence,
F
A
N
B
O
Y
S
Sentence.
What is a preposition?
A preposition links nouns,
pronouns, and phrases to
other words in a sentence.
The most common prepositions are "about,"
"above," "across," "after," "against," "along,"
"among," "around," "at," "before," "behind,"
"below," "beneath," "beside," "between,"
"beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down,"
"during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside,"
"into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto,"
"out," "outside," "over," "past," "since,"
"through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward,"
"under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon,"
"with," "within," and "without."
Phrases
Clauses
What are helping verbs?
A preposition usually indicates the temporal,
spatial or logical relationship of its object to the
rest of the sentence as in the following
examples:
The book is on the table. The book is beneath
the table. The book is leaning against the table.
The book is beside the table. She held the book
over the table. She read the book during class.
Writing Strong Sentences
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For Main (Independent) and Subordinating (Dependent) Clauses Study:
Students identify the subject and predicate in each clause in a complex sentence
Students underline the main clause in a complex sentence
Students explain the relationship between the main and the dependent clauses in a complex sentence
Students find and explain examples of simple sentences in their self-selected text.
Commas
From Jeff Anderson’s Mechanically Inclined:
All of Section 2 – Pause and Effect: Crafting Sentences with Commas (begins on page 83)
For Comma Study:
Students identify purpose of a comma in a sentence.
Students replace all missing commas in a sentence (removed by teacher)
Students model sentence patterns with a focus on commas
Students find and explain examples of commas in sentences in their self-selected text.
Parallel Structure
Students identify parallel structures in texts
Students take a sentence without parallel structure and create it.
Students model sentence patterns with a focus on parallel structure
Students find and explain examples of parallel structures in sentences in their self-selected text.
Turn to the
back of your
writer’s
notebook.
I DECLARE:
Compound sentences are an
essential tool in my writing
toolbox. As I mature I need
more sophisticated ways to
express my developing
thoughts.
Ellipses
• Rule 1: Many writers use an ellipsis whether the
omission occurs at the beginning of a sentence,
in the middle of a sentence, or between
sentences.
• A common way to delete the beginning of a
sentence is to follow the opening quotation mark
with an ellipsis, plus a bracketed capital letter:
Ellipses
• Rule 2. :Ellipses can express hesitation, changes
of mood, suspense, or thoughts trailing off.
Writers also use ellipses to indicate a pause or
wavering in an otherwise straightforward
sentence.
• Examples:
I don't know…I'm not sure.
Pride is one thing, but what happens if she…?
He said, "I…really don't…understand this."
Sentence Fragments
• Since he came to New York.
• Because my dog loves it.
• Unless you see me.
Is there anything wrong with these sentences? All of
these sentences end too quickly.
After reading these sentences, the reader asks questions
because he/she needs more information.
Sentence
Fragment
The Reader Asks...
Since he came to
New York.
Since he came, what (has
he been doing)?
Because my dog
loves it.
Because the dog loves it,
(so what)?
Unless you see
me.
Unless you see me, what
(will happen)?
Subject + Verb
Remember us?
• Okay, dependent or independent
clauses need to have a subject
(noun) and predicate (verb.)
• A subject is the noun that is doing
the main action in the sentence.
• Bob cried. Bob is the subject.
• The predicate-verb is cried.
Independent Clauses
and Dependent Clauses
• Clauses can be independent (complete) or
dependent (incomplete). If you add an
AAAWWUBBIS word to the beginning of a
independent clause, it becomes dependent.
Examples:
• Ricky broke both legs = independent clause
• When Ricky broke both legs = dependent clause
AAAWWUBBIS!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A....after
A....although
A....as
W...while
W...when
U....until
B....before
B....because
I......if
S....since
AAAWWUBBIS +
clause + comma +
clause + period.
Subordinating Conjunctions
-join a dependent clause to an independent clause
* If an AWUBIS is the 1st word in a sentence, it causes a
comma.
After
Before
Although
As
Because
While
When
If
Until
Unless
Since
So
AAAWWUBBIS + clause + comma + clause
+ period (full stop).
Examples:
• If you do not understand the directions, you can read them
again.
• Before you write the sentence, you should read other
people's sentences.
• After you have read them all, you can try to use a different
AAAWWUBBIS word.
• Although you may not understand all this, you can follow
the examples.
Commas Rules
• Use commas in compound
sentences.
• Use commas after introductory
elements.
• Use commas in nonrestrictive
elements.
• Use commas to set off additions at
the end of a sentence.
Commas Ways
• Commas should not be used to set off
nonessential information.
Student error:
Usher a real fine guy, sings so sweet.
Meet the Interrupters
• Interrupters, or embedded details, add
information to a sentence.
• The interrupter sentence pattern gives the
writer the option of adding information, a sort
of double exposure of the preceding noun. It
gives more detail to the reader.
Examples
• And she didn’t want to sit next to Frank Pearl,
who ate paste, in class. (pg 9) Judy Moody
Visual Scaffolding
Sent , interrupter, ence.
Nonrestrictive elements
• Describes a word whose meaning is already
clear without the additional words. It is not
essential to the meaning of the sentence. It is
set off with commas.
NON RESTRICTIVE ELEMENTS
• A nonrestrictive element describes a word
whose meaning is already clear without the
additional words. It is not essential to the
meaning of the sentence and is set off with
commas.
Example: The children needed sturdy shoes, which were
expensive.
• In this sentence we learn an extra fact—the
shoes were expensive. That phrase merely
Class Partner Action:
1st: Create 3 sentences using interrupters.
2nd: Trade your sentences with a partner.
3rd : Identify the interrupter. To emphasize the
break more strongly, use dashes to separate the
interrupter from the rest of the sentence.
It looks like this…
Where are the interrupters?
• That chocolate-broccoli muffin, though a good
source of vitamin C, will upset Frank's
stomach this early in the morning.
• My brother's seven-foot python, aptly named
Squeeze, slithered out the open back door
and frightened Mrs. Russell, our next-door
neighbor, nearly to death.
• That chocolate-broccoli muffin—though a
good source of vitamin C—will upset Frank's
stomach this early in the morning.
• My brother's seven-foot python—aptly
named Squeeze—slithered out the open back
door and frightened Mrs. Russell, our nextdoor neighbor, nearly to death.
Hey you,
Only write when you see me.
Plus, whenever you see me you
should only write what is
necessary! Got it? Get it? Good!
Let’s go!!! Note taker’s shine!!
Love ya,
Fuzzy Worth
Grammar King
The Semicolon
Supercomma!!!
The Semicolon
• A dot suspended over a comma-shaped mark (;)
• It separates two independent clauses or a list of
items that already contain commas.
When items in a series contain
commas, use a semicolon for
clarity.
Student Error
Alberto shouldn’t have gone in
the water, I told him not to.
Better Example
Tonight, though, there
seems to be a delay; I
pick up from the chatter
that something special is
going on.
Grab your book.
Now find two or more
sentences that are
connected. Try to
understand how the
semicolons are used.
You have 5 min.
The Colon
• Consist of two dots, one
above the other.
• The colon is like a drum roll
announcing what will follow.
• A complete sentence may end with
a colon if there is a summary, idea,
or list that follows.
• The colon sets readers up to
anticipate what follows, so it better
not let the reader down.
• Generally, the colon doesn’t follow
a verb.
• Capitalize the word after a colon
only if it’s proper noun or the start of
a complete sentence.
Student Error
Then there I was: the bad
son who didn’t watch after his
little brother.
Better Example
Today is my birthday:
Nothing can ruin this
day.
Subordinating Conjunctions
after
so that
than
that
though
although
as
because
before
even if
even though
if
in order that once
provided that
rather than
since
unless until
when
whenever
where
whereas
wherever
whether
while why
Grab your book.
Now find two or more
sentences that are
connected. Try to
understand how the
colons are used.
You have 5 min.
The Dash -• Used to set off information in a sentence with a
dramatic flair.
• It may set off parenthetical information or a list.
Example: Rushing, rushing, rushing, waiting, waiting,
waiting– swinging.
• In a vast open space—greater than Stromford’s
entire commons—buildings pressed in on all sides.
The Hyphen
Some words just
belong together.
The Hyphen
• A hyphen is a short horizontal line that joins
adjectives or words to create one concept or
unit.
• It’s often referred to as a dash-it is not, it is a
hyphen.
• Used to connect words that the writer wants
to show are related.
• Enhances and clarifies a description.
Writers use hyphens to:
1) Join compound adjectives before a noun.
(hard-working student)
2) Join compound nouns and two-word and
multiple-word concepts (mother-in-law,
over-the-counter, twelve-year-old, knowhow, skin-deep).
3) Add a prefix to a word when clarity is needed
or to avoid doubling vowels
(anti-intellectual ).
Writers use hyphens to:
4) Dividing lettered words (T-shirt, L-shaped, Xray, U-turn)
5) Divide a word between syllables at the end of
a line: when in doubt about hyphen action,
check your dictionary.
Rule 1
• To check whether a compound noun is two words, one
word, or hyphenated, you may need to look it up in the
dictionary. If you can't find the word in the dictionary, treat
the noun as separate words.
Examples:
eyewitness, eye shadow, eye-opener
NOTE:
All these words had to be looked up in the dictionary to know
what to do with them!
• Most sources no longer
recommend hyphenating
paired nationalities
(African American, Italian
American)
• Generally, hyphenate between two or more adjectives
when they come before a noun and act as a single
idea.
• Examples:
friendly-looking man
(compound adjective in front of a noun)
•
friendly little girl
(not a compound adjective)
•
brightly lit room
(Brightly is an adverb describing lit, not an adjective.)
• Examples:
The well-known actress accepted her award.
Well is an adverb followed by another descriptive
word. They combine to form one idea in front of
the noun.
• The actress who accepted her award was well
known.
Well known follows the noun it describes, so no
hyphen is used.
• A long-anticipated decision was finally made.
He got a much-needed haircut yesterday.
His haircut was much needed.
What do you notice
about the author’s use of
commas in the following
6 sentences?
GRAMMAR
JAMMER
EXTREME
Section A
1. I love teaching, and I love being at Carpenter
Middle School.
Walking is something I enjoy doing, yet I
should find time to run.
We will either go to Austin, or Fort Worth for
my birthday.
Section B
2. Psyche asked that her family be brought to
her, and Cupid unwillingly agreed.
3. Aurora and Tithonus were blissfully happy,
but then something went wrong.
4. Tithonus became a grasshopper, for on quiet
evenings you can still hear his eerie cry.
Section C
5. Being a great sister to my younger siblings is
something I strive to do, but sometimes they do
not seem to want to take my advice as their wiser
mentor.
In college I majored in Communication Studies, yet
minored in Education so that I could be a community
leader.
Lisa is my best friend from high school, and she just
got a new job teaching at an elementary school in
Highland Park, Texas.
Section D
• 6. Although baking is fun, cleaning up is not.
When I was young, I liked swinging at my
grandma’s.
After I turn 15, I hope to join a local volunteer
group.
Examples
1)We walked up the wide staircase hand in hand
and through the door, which closed by itself.
2) And what she carried up and up with her was a
buxom superstructure, firm shoulders, a straight
sharp nose, full cheeks slightly molded by a curved
line along the nostrils, thin lips that moved like
steel springs, and a high forehead topped by hair
gathered in a bun.
1. We walked up the wide staircase
hand in hand and through the door,
which closed by itself.
a. I notice that the comma is being used to join
two complete sentences into a compound
sentence.
b. I notice that the comma is being used to
separate the introductory phrase or clause or
transition from the independent clause that
follows.
c.I notice that the comma is being used to set off
additional, non-essential information
3) She, too, sat down and the questions and answers
began by way of our interpreter.
4) During the next few weeks, Miss Ryan overcame my
fears of tall energetic teachers as she bent over my
desk to help me with a word in the pre-primer.
5) Our assortment of nationalities included Koreans,
Yugoslavs, Poles, Irish, and home-grown Americans.
6) Miss Ryan took me to a seat at the front of the
room, and I shrank into it.
3. She, too, sat down and the questions and answers began by way of our
interpreter.
X) I notice that the comma is being used to set off additions at the end of
the sentence.
Y) I notice that the comma is being used to separate items in a series.
Z) I notice that the comma is being used to set apart certain adverbs that
tell how something is happening.
4. During the next few weeks, Miss Ryan overcame my fears of tall
energetic teachers as she bent over my desk to help me with a word in
the pre-primer.
Y) I notice that the comma is being used to set off additions at the end of
the sentence.
X) I notice that the comma is being used to separate the introductory
phrase or clause or transition from the independent clause that follows.
Z) I notice that the comma is being used to separate items in a series.
• `
5. Our assortment of nationalities included Koreans, Yugoslavs, Poles, Irish, and homegrown Americans.
•
•
•
I notice that the comma is being used to separate the introductory phrase or clause
or transition from the independent clause that follows.
I notice that the comma is being used to set apart certain adverbs that tell how
something is happening.
I notice that the comma is being used to separate items in a series.
6. Miss Ryan took me to a seat at the front of the room, and I shrank into it.
•
• I notice that the comma is being used to join two complete sentences into a
compound sentence.
• I notice that the comma is being used to separate the introductory phrase or clause
or transition from the independent clause that follows.
• I notice that the comma is being used to set off additional, non-essential
information.
What do you notice about the
author’s use of semicolons in
the following 2 sentences from
Crispin?
7) That means he may be killed on sight, by
anyone; if he wishes to remain alive, he must flee
his tiny village.
8) You mean you want to hear something
interesting? Like how I lived in San Francisco,
California; New York, New York; and Paris, France?
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