Commas - My CCSD



Rules 10-18

Rule 10

Set off an adverb clause at the beginning of a sentence. An adverb clause begins with a subordinating a conjuntion, such as after, although, as, because, before, if, since, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, or while.

Rule 10 Example

Whenever I feel afraid,

I whistle a happy tune.

Rule 11

Set off a nonessential adjective clause. A nonessential adjective clause simply gives additional information and is not necessary to the meaning of a sentence.

An adjective clause usually begins with a relative pronoun, such as who, whom, whose, which, or that.

Rule 11 Example

My house, which has green shutters, is at the corner of Elm and Maple.

Hint: If your not sure if it needs a comma, try covering it up and rereading your sentence. Does it make sense still?

If so, it needs to be off set with commas.

Rule 12

In a date, set off the year when it’s used with both the month and the day. Don’t use a comma if only the month and year are given.

Rule 12 Example

The ship struck an iceberg on April 14,

1912, and sank early the next morning.

Rule 13

Set off the name of a state or a country when it’s used after the name of a city. Set off the name of a city when it’s used after a street address. Don’t use a comma after the state if it’s followed by a ZIP code.

Rule 13 Example

The ship was sailing from Southampton,

England, to New York


Rule 14

Set off an abbreviated title or degree following a person’s name.

Rule 14 Example

Michelle Nakamura, Ph.

D., will be the graduation speaker.

Rule 15

Set off too when it’s used in the middle of a sentence and means “also.” Don’t set of too at the end of a sentence.

Rule 15 Example

Parents, too, will attend the ceremony.

Rule 16

Set off a direct quotation.

Rule 16 Example

Mom asked, “Have you finished your homework?”

Rule 17

Use a comma after the salutation of a friendly letter and after the closing of both a friendly letter and a business letter.

Rule 17 Example

Dear Dad,

I am so glad you came to visit. Please come back soon.

Your daughter,


Rule 18

Use a comma to prevent misreading.

Rule 18 Example

Instead of two, five teachers made the trip.