The Civil War: The Impending Crisis

Mr. Ermer
U.S. History
Miami Beach Senior High
Political Divide
 Disagreements over interpretation of the constitution
 After George Washington’s presidency, parties form
 Democratic-Republicans vs. Federalists
 Federalists believe in strong central government, urbanism
 Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, John Marshall
 Democratic-Republicans believe in state power, agrarianism
 Thomas Jefferson, Sam Madison
Governing the Republic
 George Washington establishes precedent of two
terms for presidents
 Thomas Jefferson purchases Louisiana from France
 Louisiana Purchase triples size of the United States
 War of 1812 against the British
 Cotton replaces tobacco as main Southern cash crop
 Nullification Crisis of 1820
 Missouri Compromise on slavery
Manifest Destiny
 Manifest Destiny: the belief that America was destined—by God
and history—to expand across North American and beyond
 Fueled by nationalism, vision of social perfection of “American race”
 Americans expand into Texas at request of Mexican government
 Mexico hoped to expand tax base, defend against Indian tribes
 Most who moved to Texas were Southern slave owners, bring cotton
 Some Americans revolt, attempt formation of independent nation
 Mexico puts down rebellion, bans further American settlement
 1833: Mexico drops ban on American settlement
 1835: 30,000 Americans live in Texas
Expanding America
 Americans in Texas want to legalize slavery, tension grows
 Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna comes to power as Mexican dictator
 Expands power of Mexican government, Texas begin rebellion
 Mexican army destroys Texan forces at the Alamo and Goliad
 Most Americans begin to flee to Louisiana
 Gen. Sam Houston leads forces against Santa Anna at San Jacinto
 1836: Santa Anna captured, forced to grant Texas independence
 Texas applies for annexation into the United States
 President Jackson and Congress oppose annexation
 Question of Texas becomes main campaign issue in 1844
 Both United States and Great Britain claim the Oregon Territory
 Many Americans begin migrating to Oregon under “joint occupation”
President Polk & War
 1844: James K. Polk campaigns for annexation of Texas
 1845: Texas annexed into United States, border unclear
 British reject Polk’s compromise on splitting Oregon at 49th Parallel
 United States threatens war, “54-40 or fight,” British accept old offer
 Tension over Texas-Mexico border
 Texans say Rio Grande, Mexico says Nueces River
 Claims made for New Mexico and California
 Polk offers to purchase territories, Mexico refuses
 May 13, 1846: Congress declares war on Mexico
 General Zachary Taylor captures Monterey in September
 American forces seize New Mexico, California, and Mexico City
 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Sectional Debate
 North-South tension over expanding slavery
 Wilmot Proviso, banning slavery in former Mexican territory, fails
 Popular Sovereignty vs. Missouri Compromise
 Formation of Free Soil Party (anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats)
 1849: California Gold Rush, 49’ers=anti-slavery
 Compromise of 1850
 Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
 Bleeding Kansas
 Ostend Manifesto (1854)
 Dred Scott v. Sanford (1858)
 Freeport Doctrine (1858)—Lincoln-Douglas Debates