The respiratory system




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alveoli apex asthma (Pg. 449) base bronchioles conchae epiglottis expiratory reserve volume hard palate inspiration

pages 427-437

inspiratory reserve volume larynx paranasal sinuses parietal pleura pharynx pulmonary/visceral pleura residual volume respiration respiratory membrane respiratory zone soft palate tidal volume * tonsils trachea main bronchi *=not bolded


 Plate 70 Nasal cavity –


Pharynx –


*Larynx –


*Trachea –


*Primary bronchi –


Lungs –


Diaphragm – brown

* = on both color sheets

Plate 75 Right upper – dark green Right middle –


Right lower –

lt. green

Left upper – dk. brown Left lower – brown Visceral pleura –

lt. blue

Parietal pleura –


Lobar bronchi –


Segmental bronchii –

dark pink /magenta

Bronchioles –

light brown

Right lung –


Left lung -



A. functions: 1. oversee gas exchanges b/t blood & external environment 2. shares responsibility for supplying the body with O 2 and disposing of CO 2 B. includes: 1. nose 2. pharynx 3. larynx 4. trachea 5. bronchi & branches 6. lungs wh/ contain alveoli

C. gas exchange 1. gas exchanges w/ blood happen in

alveoli ONLY

2. all other structures are conducting passageways allowing air to reach lungs 3. all other structures also purify, humidify & warm air


(illus. pgs. 427-428)

A. Nose 1. only externally visible part of resp. sys.

2. nostrils external nares

3. nasal cavity a. interior of nose

b. ÷ by nasal septum

4. nasal mucosa a. lines nasal cavity b. produces sticky mucus (moistens air, traps bacteria & debris) c. has ciliated cells that move

contaminated mucus t/w pharynx


5. conchae a. 3 mucosa-covered projections/lobes b. on lateral walls of nasal cavity

c. >ly surface area of mucosa exposed

to air 6. palates a. partition separates nasal cavity from oral cavity b. 2 types: *hard palate – anterior, supported by bone *soft palate – unsupported posterior part

7. paranasal sinuses a. surrounds nasal cavity b. functions: *help moisten air *lighten skull *act as resonance chambers for speech *produce mucus

B. Pharynx 1. muscular passageway for food & air 2. tonsils a. clusters of lymphatic tissue in pharynx b. 3 types c. adenoids – pharyngeal tonsils - located high in nasopharynx C. Larynx 1. commonly called voice box 2. functions: a. routes air & food i/t proper channels b. role in speech 3. formed by 8 hyaline cartilages *largest is the thyroid cartilage (shield-

shaped, protrudes anteriorly Adam’s apple

4. true vocal cords *part of mucous membrane of larynx *pair of folds in mucous membrane

*vibrate w/ expelled air wh/ speak

D. trachea 1. commonly called the windpipe 2. lined w/ mucosa 3. passageway for air from larynx

4. extends to level of 5

th thoracic vertebra

E. Main bronchii 1. formed by ÷ of trachea (i/t a right & left) 2. right bronchus *wider *shorter than the left *straighter *common site for objects to b/c lodged

F. Lungs 1. occupy entire thoracic cavity, except for mediastinum (wh/ houses heart, esophagus,etc) 2. 2 portions: a. apex narrow, superior portion, deep to the clavicle b. base broad area resting on diaphragm 3. differences: a. left lung: has 2 lobes b. right lung: has 3 lobes

4. pleura a. produce a slippery serous secretion (pleural fluid) b. pulmonary/visceral covers surface of ea. lung c. parietal covers the walls of the thoracic cavity d. the 2 pleural layers cling t/g, but can easily slide across one another e. strongly resist being pulled apart

5. bronchioles a. smallest of the branches of the primary bronchi b. smallest of the conducting passageways of the lungs 6. alveoli a. air sacs w/i lungs b. terminal ends of the branching bronchioles c. where gas exchange occurs by simple diffusion d. coated by a lipid molecule, called surfactant, wh/ plays an imp. role in lung function


A. Respiration 1. consists of 4 distinct events a. pulmonary ventilation *air moves in & out of lungs *commonly called breathing b. external respiration *gas exchange b/t blood & alveoli c. respiratory gas transport *O 2 & CO 2 transported to/from lungs & cells d. internal respiration *gas exchange b/t blood & tissue cells

B. Respiratory Volumes & Capacities 1. TV – Tidal Volume amt. of air brought into/out of lungs w/ normal, quiet breathing 2. IRV – Inspiratory Reserve Volume amt. of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tidal volume 3. ERV-Expiratory Reserve Volume amt. of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a tidal expiration 4. Residual Volume amt. of air remaining in lungs after the >est possible expiration 5. VC – Vital Capacity total amt. of exchangeable air

C. Nonrespiratory Air Movements (pg.437) 1. sneeze expelled air is directed thru nasal cavity instead of oral cavity 2. laughing/crying inspiration followed by release of air in a # of short breaths 3. yawning very deep inspiration; ventilates all alveoli

D. Respiration Rate 1. normal respiratory rate *called eupnea *12-15 respirations per minute 2. influenced by: a. physical factors talking, coughing, exercising b. volition (conscience control) singing, swallowing, swimming c. emotional factors scared (pant), anticipation (hold breath) surprised (gasp) d. chemical factors CO 2 and O 2 levels


A. sinusitis sinus inflammation; can cause marked changes in voice quality B. Pleurisy

inflammation of pleura; can be caused by

secretion of pleural fluid C. atelectasis lung collapse; lung is useless for ventilation D. hypoxia inadequate O2 delivery to body tissues; skin/mucosae b/c bluish (cyanosis)

E. lung cancer (pg. 443) 1. accts. for 1 / 3

2. incidence is

of all cancer deaths 3. > prevalent malignancy of both sexes 4. >ly aggressive, metastasize rapidly & widely F. hyperventilation 1. deep, rapid breathing 2. chngs. amt. of carbonic acid in blood 3. can lead to: apnea (cessation of breathing), cyanosis, dizziness, fainting

Healthy Lung vs. Smoker’s lung

G. COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) 1. includes: chronic bronchitis &/ emphysema 2. most damaging & disabling resp. disorders (mj. cause of death/disability in US) 3. common features:

a. almost a/w history of smoking

b. dyspnea (diff./labored breathing) “air hunger” occurs & b/c more severe c. coughing & frequent pulmonary inf.

d. most COPD patients are hypoxic (inadequate O 2 to tissues)

H. cystic fibrosis 1. > common lethal genetic disease in US

2. oversecretion of a thick mucus clogs

resp. passages 3. also impairs food digestion (clogs pancreatic & bile ducts)

4. sweat glands extremely salty perspiration

I. emphysema 1. alveoli enlarge 2. fibrosis of lungs 3. lungs b/c < elastic