CONSCIOUSNESS Rivera, Kristina I. What is Consciousness? II. Altered states: sleep III. Dreams IV. Altered States: Effects of Hypnosis V. Altered States: The Influence of Psychoactive Drugs William James asserts that there is no single stream of consciousness but rather multiple “channels” CONSCIOUSNESS influenced by their particular social groups and cultures CONSCIOUSNESS Is your awareness of everything that is going on around you and inside your own head at any given moment, which you use to organize your behavior (Farthing, 1992) This includes your thoughts, sensations, and feelings. CONSCIOUSNESS WAKIN Where people’s thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and they feel alert. G Altered states of CONSCIOUSNESS Occurs when there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity. State of divided consciousness I. What is Consciousness? II. Altered states: sleep III. Dreams IV. Altered States: Effects of Hypnosis V. Altered States: The Influence of Psychoactive Drugs “gentle tyrant” (Webb, 1992) ALTEREDSLEEP STATES: One of the human body’s biological rhythms Sleep: role of the hypothala Circadian Rhythm “circa” = about “diem” = day “about a day” to complete ALTERED STATES: sleep ALTERED STATES: sleep SCN – the internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep ALTERED STATES: sleep Sleep: role of the hypothala • Serotonin levels • Body temperature • SCN – may be responsible for resetting the body’s biological “clock” to a 24-hour period Price of not sleeping • microsleeps • concentration problems, inability to do simple tasks • sleep deprivation Adaptive theory of • Product of evolution sleep HOW • to avoid predators at night WHY Restorative theory of sleep • chemicals replaced, cellular damage repaired • Body growth rapid eye moveme Sleep: Rem Non-rem • Most dreams take place • Deep and restful • Voluntary muscles are inhibited • Body is free to move around • After and emotionally stressful • After a physically demanding day Stages of sleep Stages of sleep Sleep disorders • Nightmares and REM behavior disorder • Sleepwalking/somnambulism • Night terrors • Insomnia • Sleep apnea • Narcolepsy I. What is Consciousness? II. Altered states: sleep III. Dreams IV. Altered States: Effects of Hypnosis V. Altered States: The Influence of Psychoactive Drugs dreams I. What is Consciousness? II. Altered states: sleep III. Dreams IV. Altered States: Effects of Hypnosis V. Altered States: The Influence of Psychoactive Drugs hypnosis a state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion. Key Steps in Hypnosis Four steps are always present: 1. The hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said. 2. The person is told to relax and feel tired. 3. The hypnotist tells the person to “let go” and accept suggestions easily. 4. The person is told to use vivid imagination. hypnosis The real key to hypnosis seems to be a heightened state of suggestibility. Key Steps in Hypnosis Basic Suggestion Effect is the tendency of an individual to perform actions they don't normally do because the burden of doing it falls to the responsibility of the hypnotist. Dissociation Two Views of Why Hypnosis Works Social Role-playing Ernest Hilgard believed that hypnosis worked only on the immediateconscious mind of a person, while a part of that person’s mind (a “hidden observer”) remained aware of all that was going on. Hypnosis as Dissociation One part of the mind, the conscious part, is thinking about something, while the other part is actually doing something else entirely. Hypnosis as Dissociation In the same way, Hilgard believes that there is a hidden part of the mind that is very much aware of the hypnotic subject’s activities and sensations, even though the “hypnotized” part of the mind is blissfully unaware of these same things. as Social Role-pla Hypnosis The Social-Cognitive Theory of Hypnosis assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation as Social Role-pla Hypnosis Social roles are very powerful influences on behavior, as anyone who has ever worn a uniform can understand—the uniform stands for a particular role that becomes very easy to play. hypnosis I. What is Consciousness? II. Altered states: sleep III. Dreams IV. Altered States: Effects of Hypnosis V. Altered States: The Influence of Psychoactive Drugs The Influence of Psycho-Active Drugs Psycho-Active Drugs are drugs that alter thinking, perception and memory. Used in sedation in medical operations, relieving pain of injuries or diseases, and control various conditions such as sleep disorders or attention defiricit disorders. Dangers include physical and psychological dependence, and drug overdose. Psycho-Active Drugs Physical Dependence is a condition occurring when a person's body becomes unable to function normally without a particular drug. Drug Tolerance is a condition that happens when the person continues to use the drug, and larger doses of the drug are needed to achieve the same initial effects. Psycho-Active Drugs Symptoms of Withrawal are physical sensations such as headaches that occur because the body is trying to adust with the absence of the drug. Basic Signs of Physical Dependence Compulsive Use If cocaine is available, the dependent person has to use it. He or she can’t say no to it. Loss of Control Those dependent upon cocaine can’t stop using it when it’s available until it’s all gone or until they have exhausted themselves to the point where they can no longer function. Basic Signs of Physical Dependence Disregard for the Consequences of Use Cocaine addicts will lie, cheat, steal, lose their jobs, damage or break up relationships, and use rent money to buy cocaine—nothing else matters to them but the drug. Psychological Dependence belief that the drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being. Unlike Physical Dependence-inducing drugs which give negative reinforcement through withdrawals, Psychological Dependence-inducing drugs give off positive reinforcement wherein there might not be withdrawal to go through or from. Psychological Dependence Depressants Stimulants Major Drug Categories Narcotics Hallucinogenics Drugs: stimulants drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system. Stimulants won’t give people any extra energy, but they will cause people to burn up whatever energy reserves they do have. They also depress the appetite, which is another function of the sympathetic division. When the energy reserves are exhausted, or the drug wears off, a “crash” is inevitable. Drugs: stimulants Cocaine is a natural drug found in coca plant leaves that produces feelings of euphoria (a feeling of great happiness), energy, power, and pleasure. Amphetamines are stimulants that are synthesized (made) in laboratories rather than being found in nature. Drugs: stimulants Nicotine is a toxic stimulant that produces a slight “rush” or sense of arousal as it raises blood pressure and accelerates the heart, as well as providing a rush of sugar into the bloodstream by stimulating the release of adrenalin. Caffeine is a mild stimulant that helps maintain alertness, and can increase the effectiveness of some pain relievers such as aspirin. Depressants Stimulants Major Drug Categories Narcotics Hallucinogenics Drugs: Depressants Barbiturates are drugs that have a sedative (sleep-inducing) effect and are also called as Major Tranquilizers. Drug Interaction with alcohol and overdosage can lead to death. The effects, depending on dosage levels, range from mild sedation or sleepiness to unconsciousness or coma. Depressants are drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system and slow it down. Drugs: Depressants Benzodiazepines are drugs that are used to lower anxiety and reduce stress, and are also called as the Minor Tranquilizers. They are considered safer than barbiturates and are now the drugs of choice to treat sleep problems, nervousness, and anxiety. Drugs: Depressants Alcohol, the chemical resulting from the fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter, is the most commonly used and abused depressant. Alcohol depresses a person’s natural inhibitions, the social rules people have learned that allow them to get along with others and function in society. Depressants Stimulants Major Drug Categories Narcotics Hallucinogenics painkilling depressant drugs derived from the opium poppy. Drugs: narcotics class of drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptor sites for endorphins, the neurotransmitters that naturally deaden pain sensations. Opium, made from the opium poppy, has pain-relieving and euphoriainducing properties that have been known for at least 2,000 years. Drugs: narcotics Morphine is created by dissolving opium in an acid and then neutralizing the acid with ammonia. It is still used today but in carefully controlled doses andfor short periods of time. Drugs: narcotics Heroin is a purer form of morphine, and since people theorized that the impurities in morphine were the substances creating the harmful side effects, they hailed it as the new wonder drug. It did not take long, however, for doctors to realize that heroin was even more powerfully addictive than morphineor opium. Narcotics: why they’re Opium and its addictive derivatives, morphine and heroin, duplicate the action of endorphins so well that the nervous system slows or stops its production of the neurotransmitter. When the drug wears off, there is no protection against any kind of pain, causing the severe symptoms of withdrawal associated with these drugs. The addict who tries to quit using the drug feels such pain that the urge to use again becomes unbearable. Stimulants Depressants Major Drug Categories Narcotics Hallucinogenics Drugs: hallucinogenics drugs that alter perceptions and may cause hallucinations. cause the brain to alter its interpretation of sensations and can produce sensory distortions similar to synesthesia in which sensations cross over each other — colors have sound, sounds have smells, and so on. False sensory perceptions, called hallucinations, are often experienced, especially with the more powerful hallucinogens. Nonmanufactured Highs Hallucinogenics: 2 basic types Manufactured Highs (Laboratory-made) Hallucinogenics: manufactured LSD or lysergic acid diethylamide is synthesized from a grain fungus called ergot. The effect it has on a person’s ability to perceive reality is highly dangerous. Real dangers and hazards in the world may go unnoticed by a person“lost” in an LSD fantasy, and people under the influence of this drug may make poor decisions. Hallucinogenics: manufactured PCP or phenyl cyclohexyl piperidine can be a hallucinogen,stimulant, depressant, or an analgesic (painkilling) drug, depending on the dosage. As with LSD, users of PCP can experience hallucinations, distorted sensations, and very unpleasant effects. Hallucinogenics: manufactured Ecstacy or MDMA is a stimulatory hallucinogenic that produces a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. Hallucinogenics: NONmanufacture Mescaline comes from the buttons found on d the peyote cactus and haslong been a part of many Native American religious and spiritual rituals. Psilocybin is another naturally occurring hallucinogen, contained in a certain kind of mushroom, often referred to as “magic mushrooms.” Hallucinogenics: NONmanufacture Marijuana is best known for its ability to d produce a feeling of well-being, mild intoxication, and mild sensory distortions or hallucinations. The most psychoactive cannabinoid, and the active ingredient in marijuana, is tetrahydrocannabinol. Studies have concluded that while marijuana can create a powerful psychological dependency, it does not produce physical dependency or physical withdrawal symptoms.