Erikson's theory: Psychosocial Theory of Development

Erikson's theory: Psychosocial
Theory of Development
A “more social” view of Freud…
Psychosocial Theory of
• Erikson's theory is also known as the
psychosocial theory of development. He
defines eight stages. At each stage, each
individual must face a developmental
crisis. The stages are as follows:
Erik Erikson
Basic trust vs. Mistrust
Basic trust vs. mistrust (Birth to 12-18
months): infant must form a first loving,
trusting relationship with the caregiver or
develop a sense of mistrust and fear of
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Autonomy vs. shame/doubt (18 months
to 3 years): the child's energies are
directed toward the development of
physical skills, including walking,
grasping, controlling the sphincter. the
child learns to control but may develop
shame and doubt if not handled well.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Initiative vs. guilt (3 to 6 years): the child
continues to become more assertive and
to take more initiative but may be too
forceful, which can lead to guilt feelings.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Industry vs. inferiority (6 to 12 years): the
child must deal with demands to learn
new skills or risk a sense of inferiority,
failure, or incompetence.
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Identity vs. role confusion (adolescence):
the teenager must achieve identity in
occupation, gender roles, politics, and
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood):
the young adult must develop intimate
relationships or suffer feelings or
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Generativity vs. stagnation (middle
adulthood): each adult must find some
way to satisfy and support the next
generation; otherwise life becomes
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Ego integrity vs. Despair
• Ego integrity vs. despair (late adulthood):
the culmination is a sense of acceptance
of oneself as one is and a sense of
fulfillment (ego integrity) or a growing
sense of despair as one’s life ends.
Ego integrity vs. Despair