File - Stephen Hanson ePortfolio

Background Information
 Was a tall, blonde Jew viewed as an outsider.
 Studied art and a variety of languages during his school years rather
than science courses.
Instead of college, he traveled Europe, keeping a journal of his
Taught art subjects to children.
With help of friend, Anna Freud received a certificate from the
Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.
In 1933 came to America and held positions at Harvard Medical
School, Yale, Berkeley, and Menninger Foundation.
Believed that humans develop throughout their lifespan.
Developed eight psychosocial stages that humans encounter through
out their life.
Trust vs. Mistrust
 The first stage in Erikson’s theory.
 Birth to 1 year
 Defined as an essential trustfulness of others as well as
trustworthiness in oneself. Whether or not the world can
be trusted to satisfy their basic needs.
 Babies feel secure when food and comfort are provided
with consistency, continuity, and sameness of experience.
 If they develop trust, the child will confidently explore the
social world.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
 Occurs between ages 2 & 3.
 Children become self-sufficient in many activities OR
doubt their own abilities.
 Examples: Potty training, walking, feeding & talking.
 Parents need to allow an environment that enables the
child to have self control without a loss of self-esteem.
Initiative vs. Guilt
 Occurs between the ages of 4-5.
 Children want to undertake many adult like activities or
accept the limits and prohibitions set by care givers.
 They feel either adventurous or guilty.
 Encouragement from parents is extremely important
during this stage.
 Examples: Saying something new, extending or learning a
skill, or beginning a project.
Industry vs. Inferiority
 Occurs between 6 years old and puberty.
 Children learn to be competent and productive in
mastering new skills or feel inferior, unable to do anything
as well they wish they could.
 Major Event: Child enters school and is exposed to many
new skills that their culture values.
 Time of devoted attention and perseverance in learning.
Identity vs. Role Confusion
 13 – 19 years old
 Who am I?
 Easier to identify if earlier issues are conquered.
 May last into 20’s
 Genius’ find it harder to Identify
 Industrial society harder to identify for all.
 Sexual Identity
 Social Identity
 Religious Identity
 Boundaries pushed
Intimacy vs. Isolation
 19 – 40 year old
 Conflict centers on making intimate loving relationships
 Stages dependent on the others
 Productivity and societal contribution
 Previous stages determine which productivity path
Generativity vs. Stagnation
 Middle Adulthood: 35-55 (or 65)
 Ego Development Outcome: Generativity vs. Self Absorption or
 Basic strengths: Production and Care
 This is the “be in charge” stage. Work and family are the most crucial things in a
person’s life at this time.
 Significant task is to perpetuate culture and transmit values of culture through family,
and also work to establish a stable environment. Strength comes through care of others
and production of something that contributes to the betterment of society (which
Erikson calls generativity).
 Major life changes may occur at this stage, such as kids moving away from home or
mid-life crisis. If one does not get through this stage successfully, he can become self
absorbed and stagnant.
Integrity vs. Despair
 Late Adulthood: 55-65 to death
 Ego Development Outcome: Integrity vs. Despair
 Basic Strengths: Wisdom
 Erikson believed that much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage, and the
last stage is recovering from it. A person will have a sense of integrity if he looks back
upon his life with happiness and contentment, feeling fulfilled with a deep sense that
life has meaning and they have made a contribution to it.
 On the other hand, despair occurs when a person reaches this stage and feels depressed
about their experiences and perceived failures. They may fear death as they struggle to
find some purpose in their lives.
 There is also the possibility that a person may feel that he has all the answers in life and
end with a strong dogmatism that only their view has been correct. Erikson also
categorized this as despair.