Semester 1 Exam Study Guide Unit 1: An Orientation to the Human Body (Chapter 1) 1. Define anatomy and physiology. 2. List the definition of the following anatomical terms, and use it in a sentence: Superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, media, lateral, proximal, distal, superficial, deep. 3. Describe the sections the following planes divide the body into: sagittal, midsagittal, frontal (coronal), transverse. 4. List the following levels of the body from simplest to most complex: chemical, organism, organ system, cellular, tissue. 5. Define anatomical position. 6. List the correct order of the 5 components of a homeostatic pathway: effector, stimulus, control center, receptor, response, efferent pathway, afferent pathway. 7. What is the difference between a positive and negative feedback system? Give examples of each. Unit 2: Macromolecules, Cells, and Tissues (Chapters 2-3) 8. What is the storage form of glucose in animals called? 9. Compare and contrast simple diffusion, osmosis, diffusion and facilitated diffusion. Define and list similarities and differences. 10.What are enzymes and what do they do? 11. Which organelle is responsible for detoxification of the cell? 12. What are the four major types of tissue in the human body and their functions? What are the different types of connective tissue? Unit 3: The Integumentary System (Chapter 4) 13.What are the functions of the skin? 14.What are the five layers of the epidermis from superficial to deep? (Remember your mnemonic) 15.What are the 4 indications of a melanoma? Remember the ABCD rule. 16.What are the difference between 1st, 2nd, and 3rd degree burns? What is the greatest threat to life of a third degree burn? 17. What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands? 18.How does our skin try to keep us warm? 19.What is responsible for skin pigmentation and allow us to tan? 20.What are sudoriferous glands? What two factors stimulate sweat 21.What is the component of our skin that waterproofs? Unit 4: The Skeletal System (Chapter 5) 22.What is an osteon and where is it found? What runs through the center of each osteon? 23.What is the purpose of an epiphyseal plate? 24.What are the difference between osteoblasts and osteoclasts? 25.What is the difference between red and yellow marrow? What different functions do they perform? 26. What 2 factors determine bone remodeling? 27.What are the small cavities called where bone cells reside? 28.What is the difference between a compression and a greenstick fracture? In whom is each more common? Why? 29.What is the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton? 30.Be able to identify all bones of the body. (No bone markings) Unit 5: The Muscular System (Chapter 6) 31.What are the major functions of the muscular system? 32.Which muscle tissues have voluntary control? Involuntary? 33.Be able to order the pats of a muscle from large to small: Myofilament, muscle fiber, myofibril, sarcomere, and fascicle. 34.What is a sarcomere? 35.Explain the process of a muscle contraction from nerve impulse to the full contraction at the sarcomere. Make sure to include the role of Acetylcholine, ATP and calcium in this process. 36. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? 37.Know the muscles of the head and what they move.