NATURE VS NURTURE EXPLAINING DIFFERENCES…EXPLAINING SIMILARITIES “Life is like a game of cards. The hand that is dealt you represents determinism; the way you play it is free will.” Nehru CONSIDER DOLLY…. Would a human clone’s adult personality mimic the person donating the genetic code? -orWould he/she be unique? NATURE • When biology determines behavior • Tower of London • Explains why people who are related to each other- resemble each other RECESSIVE VS. DOMINANT GENES Recessive genes= two recessive genes must be paired to produce characteristic Dominant genes= need no pairing. produce characteristic every time GENES DO NOT ALWAYS INFLUENCE LIFE DIRECTLY PKU EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY Farm Fox Experiment Dmitry Belyaev 1959- Estonia 30- male 100- female 45,000 foxes later… CHANGES TO THE FOX.. • Pigment • Shorter tails (less bushy) • Changes to skull • Significant increase in tameness HOW ALIKE ARE WE? 98.4% like Chimpanzees THE IMPORTANCE OF TWIN STUDIES… • Identical twins reared apart (separated at birth)studied to see the effect of environment. • Adopted fraternal twins studied to see the effect of inheritance. WHAT DOES RESEARCH SUGGEST? Identical Twins Separated Values Interests Motor skills Reading, spelling, writing • Intelligence • Medical issues • Personality • • • • Adopted Twins Attitude Manners Faith Politics Work ethic TEMPERAMENT= YOUR GENETIC PERSONALITY • The easy child • The difficult child • The slow-towarm-up child NURTURE Is your brain hard-wired and unchangeable- or does the environment actually produces changes in the brain? It depends…. MALE PATTERN BALDNESS=100% LEADERSHIP QUALITIES IN WOMEN=30% ENVIRONMENT IS COMPLEX • Culture= similarities/diversity • Circumstances • Economics • Opportunities • Skills learned CRITICAL PERIODS • Time when we are especially sensitive to learning • Begins and ends abruptly • Beyond this period, growth will not occur IMPRINTING =RAPID, PERMENANT LEARNING •Confined to a “definite” time period •Irreversible •Long-term consequences •Konrad Lorenz PRENATAL INFLUENCES.. • Teratogens • Congenital problems • Fetal Alcohol syndrome GENDER… Your biggest environmental influence? BIG BOYS DON’T CRY… Gender Role Gender Identity Roles, mannerisms, behaviors and interests (taught by culture)regarded as male or female Your own personal sense of being male or female NO DISTINCT SEX (IN APPEARANCE OR BEHAVIOR) ANDROGYNOUS INFLUENCE OF MEDIA ON GENDER?