Synoptic: Bridging the Development Gap East Africa Wordle of advance info whole text Wordle of advance info edited text East Africa: The key ideas Development…. Conflict… Threats… Players…. Actions…. Futures…. East Asia: Geographical overview Physical factors: - Relief - Climate - Natural resources (water / energy / food) Human factors: - Population density - HDI - Colonial legacy and political allies / groupings - Development - Population structure / change - Agriculture Physical factors: Relief, water and tectonics Much of E.Africa’s western interior is highland, but wet and fertile > Tectonics/ horst and graben/ volcanic activity > High population density E.African coast is low but dry > Low population density Not many of the region’s rivers/lakes connect the coast to its interior > Barrier to development? > Expensive to create/use land links Physical factors: Tectonics E. African Rift: - Early stage constructive (divergent) plate boundary - Continental plate being thinned by mantle plume - Horst and graben topography > fertile valleys from basalt eruptions and erosion of valley sides with wet highlands) - Leads to wide altitudinal range > biodiversity http://geology.com/articles/east-africa-rift.shtml Physical factors: Climate What broad summary can you make about rainfall levels in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania? http://www.grida.no/publications/other/aeo/?src=/aeo/032.htm http://en.climate-data.org/location/541/ Physical factors: Climate and ITCZ http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v4/n5/fig_tab/ncomms2897_F2.html Physical factors: Climate zones and food What is the link between climate, food production, population density and natural hazards in the region? http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m19/activity2.php Physical factors: Climate zones and food What is the link between climate, food production, population density and natural hazards in the region? http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/j8227e/j8227e06.htm#TopOfPage Physical factors: Energy resources http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/interactive/2012/jun/14/bp-world-energy-statistics-production-consumption-reserves http://www.eia.gov/countries/regions-topics.cfm?fips=eeae Physical factors: Energy resources Kenya Tanzania Uganda Thermal (Oil, coal, gas) 22% 11% 1% Hydro 6% 1% - Geothermal 1% - - Wind 0.5% - - Biomass (Wood, Charcoal etc.) 70% 88% 99% http://www.businessdailyafrica.com/Corporate-News/Kenya-targets-green-energyinvests-in-geothermal-production-/-/539550/1474724/-/14j1594z/-/index.html Physical factors: Water resources http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml Human factors: Population density Average pop. densities: Kenya: 69 people/km2 Tanzania: 46 people/km2 Uganda: 136 people/km2 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/core/lw/2.0/html/tileshop_pmc/tileshop_pmc_inline.html?titl e=Click%20on%20image%20to%20zoom&p=PMC3&id=3283664_pone.0031743.g001.jpg Human factors: Development contrasts (HDI) Human factors: Colonial legacy Human factors: Cold War allegiances Further research and definitions of Cold War / WWII: http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii Themes/ideas: Sustainable development Sustainable development Environmental safeguarding/ improvement Social needs Economic needs Development: Rostow’s model Development: Frank’s dependency theory http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2012/oct/22/resource-extractioncolonialism-legacy-poor-countries Development: Myrdal and cumulative causation Topic map of overall theme Issues Physical / human features Development Gap: East Africa Players Futures Actions Topic map of overall theme Water Climate Physical features Rift Energy IGOs Urbanisation Features/ Characteristics Human features Population Conflict TNCs Development Gap: East Africa Global Players Regional Development Issues Futures Local Actions HIPC Aid Trade blocs Use ‘new’ information from research Parallel examples How can I be “synoptic”? Links to areas of AS and A2 course Use of broad geographical themes Statistics Aral Sea N.Africa Mercosur/Cari com Parallel examples Use ‘new’ information from research Nabucco Water Conflict Energy Security Links to areas of AS and A2 course Superpowers Biodiversity Tech Fix Sand dams Updates East Africa Going Global R.Nile Use of broad geographical themes Globalisation Inequality Geopolitics Sustainability Climate change Parallel examples Geopolitical tension/conflict over resources (development + water): > Aral Sea > Nile Regional inequalities and conflicts (link to weak governance): > Middle East > N.Africa (Maghreb) Trade blocs > Mercosur > Caricom Major infrastructure project (top-down) > Nabucco pipeline Further research / updates UN / World Bank classification of countries as HIC, MIC, LIC etc.. www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf www.data.worldbank.org UN OCHA country info: http://www.unocha.org/eastern-africa/about-us/about-ocha-eastern-africa/kenya UN Millennium Development Goals: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/ http://www.mdgtrack.org/index.php?tab=c&c=KEN World Bank data on the countries: http://data.worldbank.org/country/tanzania HIPC factsheet (IMF – with good links to other sites): https://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/hipc.htm http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTDEBTDEPT/0,,contentMDK:2026 0411~menuPK:528655~pagePK:64166689~piPK:64166646~theSitePK:469043,00.html Further research / updates Population growth: http://www.prb.org/Publications/Datasheets/2013/2013-world-population-datasheet/world-map.aspx#map/world/population/2013 http://ilri.org/infoserv/Webpub/fulldocs/Critical/resource.htm Somalia 2010 (drought/conflict/refugees): http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-22380352 http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/DR-2011-000029-KEN_0720.pdf http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=51411 Malaria: Page from EAC (East African Community) website http://www.eac.int/health/index.php?option=com_content&id=95%3Amalaria-preventionand-control&Itemid=32 http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/news/56351 Africa outlook: http://www.grida.no/publications/other/aeo/ Further research / updates EAF and background: http://www.monitor.co.ug/OpEd/Commentary/Can-the-East-African-federation-beathistory-/-/689364/2056238/-/t9jtk1z/-/index.hamlet Conflict over Lake Victoria: http://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2011-08-19-uganda-and-kenya-primed-to-drawarms-over-tiny-lake-victoria-island/#.U47g0l7iltE Chinese investment: New railway in Kenya http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-27368877 http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/interactive/2013/apr/29/chinacommits-billions-aid-africa-interactive Imports/exports: http://atlas.media.mit.edu/explore/tree_map/hs/export/tza/all/show/2010/ Further research /notable gaps NGOs / Appropriate technology/ sustainable development - Sand dams: http://www.excellentdevelopment.com/articles/people-amp-communities/sand-damsexplained-in-film Role of TNCs in development – Camellia plc / tea plantations: http://www.camellia.plc.uk/our-customers/tea Tourism and link to development/environment: - Kenya (safari and marine) e.g. Masai Mara (safari) and coastal tourism) http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/dec/12/tourism-turtles-kenyapopulation http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/east_african_coast/ - Uganda (Gorillas) http://www.albertinerift.org/Wildlife/Apes/MountainGorillas.aspx http://www.grida.no/graphicslib/detail/economic-impacts-of-gorilla-tourism-inuganda_b996 - Tanzania (Kilimanjaro, Udzungwa NP) http://www.tanzaniaparks.com Udzungwa: http://www.udzungwa.org/default.asp?pagesID=1 (home) http://www.udzungwa.org/default.asp?pagesID=47 (info on management) Ngorongoro: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/39 http://www.craterlodge.com Some ideas for questions #1 1. Explain the variations in current levels of development in East Africa. 2. Explain how the physical, economic and political factors of the region have limited development to date. 3. Examine the factors that have led to uneven development in the region of East Africa. 4. Account for the recent changes in levels of development in the East African region. 5. Examine the factors that have led geopolitical tension in East Africa. 1. Evaluate the contribution that globalisation has made to development and quality of life in East Africa. 2. To what extent will trade be important in the development of the East Africa region? 3. To what extent does political tension threaten the future development of East Africa? …continued on the next slide. Some ideas for questions #2 1. Assess the severity of potential sources of conflict in East Africa in future. 2. To what extent is conflict in East Africa a threat to the stability and continuing development of the region? 3. Assess the role of governance in the past and future development of the East African region. 4. Evaluate the sustainability of the LAPSSET project 1. Examine the roles that a range of Players and Actions could take in helping East African countries to develop further. 1. Assess the sustainability of continued development in East Africa. 2. Evaluate the social, political and economic threats to further development in East Africa.