Burke-Litwin model of Organisational Change

Lecture # 43
Organization Development
• OD is a planned and sustained
effort to apply behavioral science
for system improvement, using
reflextive,self analytic methods.
• (Schmuck and Miles ,1971)
Organization Development
• OD is a process of planned
change ,change of an
organization culture from one
which avoid an examination of
social processes to one which
institutionalizes and legitimizes
this examination
(Burke and Hornstein, 1972)
OD Model
• Burke-Litwin model of Organisational Change:
- Can be applied to both individual and organisational
The model shows how to create first order change and
second order change
The model distinguishes organisational climate and
organisational culture. Organisational climate is defined as
people’s perception and attitude about the organisation
whether it is good or bad , friendly or unfriendly, hard
working or easy going.
These perceptions are relatively easier to change
because they are built on employees reaction to
current organisational and managerial practices.
While organisation culture is defined as deep seated values
and beliefs that are enduring assumptions, often
unconscious, and difficult to change.
Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate.
The basic premise of the Burke-Litwin Model is:
Interventions directed toward structure, management
practices, and systems (policies and procedures)
result in first order change.
Interventions directed toward mission and strategy,
leadership and organisational culture result in second
order change
The model also make a distinction between
transaction and transformational leadership style.
Transformational leaders are those who inspires
followers to transcend their self interest for the good of
the organisation and who are capable of having a
profound & extra ordinary effect on their followers.
While transactional leaders guide their followers in the
direction of established goals by clarifying role and
task requirements.