Lecture # 43 Organization Development • OD is a planned and sustained effort to apply behavioral science for system improvement, using reflextive,self analytic methods. • (Schmuck and Miles ,1971) Organization Development • OD is a process of planned change ,change of an organization culture from one which avoid an examination of social processes to one which institutionalizes and legitimizes this examination (Burke and Hornstein, 1972) OD Model • Burke-Litwin model of Organisational Change: - Can be applied to both individual and organisational performance. The model shows how to create first order change and second order change The model distinguishes organisational climate and organisational culture. Organisational climate is defined as people’s perception and attitude about the organisation whether it is good or bad , friendly or unfriendly, hard working or easy going. These perceptions are relatively easier to change because they are built on employees reaction to current organisational and managerial practices. While organisation culture is defined as deep seated values and beliefs that are enduring assumptions, often unconscious, and difficult to change. Changing culture is much more difficult than changing climate. The basic premise of the Burke-Litwin Model is: 1. Interventions directed toward structure, management practices, and systems (policies and procedures) result in first order change. 2. Interventions directed toward mission and strategy, leadership and organisational culture result in second order change The model also make a distinction between transaction and transformational leadership style. Transformational leaders are those who inspires followers to transcend their self interest for the good of the organisation and who are capable of having a profound & extra ordinary effect on their followers. While transactional leaders guide their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.