Definitions and IDs • • • • • • • • • Bourgeoisie Calling of Estates General Tennis Court Oath concordat Sans-Culottes Bourbon King Louis XVI abdicate Bastille “It was a time when the revolution began to devour its own children” Questions and Imperatives • Discuss the 4 phases of the French Revolution with regard to success, leadership, international relationships… • Can political change occur without social and economic upheaval? Explain and give examples. (Class discussion) French Revolution, Background • Feudalism • growth of towns, increased commerce, entrepreneurs, growth of merchants, colonization,...helped to break up the feudal system • nobility exercised great power at this time • During the reign of Louis XIV, there was an attempt to build up the power of the King by taking away power from the nobility • Louis XIV died 1715, left the treasury bankrupt • Louis XIV succeeded by his 5 yr old great-grandson, Louis XV • Louis XV not dedicated to work, not too bright...a weak King • Louis XV died in 1774 and was succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI Bourgeoisie • 1714-1789...emergence of Bourgeoisie (made up of commerce merchants, bankers, bureaucrats, government employees, small town lawyers...gave rise to capitalism...came from the serfs and the peasants • by 1789 it was the most powerful economic class of the country (saved money for capital to invest...business, science...)...worked hard...like the Protestant work ethic Bourgeoisie & Nobility • • • • • • • • • • • Bourgeoisie - hard working, save money wealthiest class of France envious of the nobility Imitated nobles bourgeoisie fathers would be willing to marry off daughters buy commissions into the military Noblemen - leisure class, display largess, spend money now, arrogance, haughty attitude toward lower-class did not think highly of bourgeoisie (didn’t even know a good vintage wine) becomes shaky with the rise of the bourgeoisie class marry their younger sons off to bourgeoisie class nobility still monopolized cultural life Who is a threat? • Nobility and Aristocracy (Crown) eyed each other • they considered each as a threat • they didn’t see the bourgeoisie class as a threat Liberalism • not necessarily a political philosophy, but a set of attitudes concerned w/ social & political justice, & commitment to economic progress • Jacobin clubs, • literacy soared in the 18th century...people became increasingly vocal • Monarchy sometimes put down these people but did have a respect for intellectuals • King still had absolutism on his mind with the noblemen and churches wielding great power, but the king was inefficient and didn’t pay attention to events around him • Jacobins had outright hatred of the monarchy • revolutionary ground was being laid • Rousseau would be asked to speak at the salons to the nobility • American Revolution FOUR PHASES • • • • • Early phase 1789-1792 Radical phase 1793-1794 Thermidor (WEAK) 1795-1799 Bonaparte (1799-1815) FULL- CIRCLE 1789 • Estates General • King wanted a new tax bill and asked them for it • expectation was that financial relief for the royal government would be granted in return for the redress of grievances • Third Estate had been granted double representation and they had many sympathizers in the other two estates • June 17, the Third Estate invited the other two to join them and they declared themselves to be the “National Assembly” • ACT OF REVOLUTION Tennis Court Oath • 3 days later on June 20 later they found themselves physically locked out of their meeting hall, • “Tennis Court Oath:” never to disband until France was given a Constitution Mirabeau • glamorous, devoid of morality, alcoholic, drugs, gambling, womanizer...but a good leader • chased out of France in 1786 (to England) • people naturally liked him • he was dynamic with cutting edge ideas • a moderate • wise • a thinker • he knew that Rousseau’s ideas would produce revolution or fail King Louis XVI • June 23: National Assembly annulled by the King • June 24: troops began to mutiny • June 27: the King backed down & instructed the nobles and clergy to join the 3rd Estate • The forming of the National Assembly was the moderate beginning of revolution • food shortages from bad harvests and the poor could not afford tax payments to the Nobility and Church • peasants vs nobility...panic erupted • riots in Paris...demonstrations • July 14: storming of the Bastille in search for weapons & to free prisoners (King traumatized) Declaration of the Rights of Man • On August 26, 1789 the National Assembly issued the “Declaration of the Rights of Man” • Men are born and remain free and equal in rights! • it negated the monarchy and feudal laws, the inequalities • natural rights were liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression • Mirabeau tried to nurse the King to these ideas through secret correspondences The Players • Revolutionaries...a mass movement of people who want to overthrow the corrupt government...they have utopian ideas or visions to recreate...to make reality fit their vision… • Liberals...fall short of the revolutionaries...they use persuasion, since in outright revolution, one doesn’t know where he will be taken • Conservatives...they accept society as it is...believe in slight changes but see the world as an organic unity of generations connected… • Reactionary...looks nostalgically to the past...wants to restore the past...most often the Monarchists...want the old feudal regime The Right and the Left • • • • Early on the revolution was non-violent setting up the National Assembly as a legislative body ”Declaration of Rights” until 1789, Jacobins wanted far reaching reforms and thought the King could be persuaded (recall Mirabeau) • Jacobins became the radical revolutionaries led by Robespierre...Jacobins also known as “the Mountain” because they sat high in the chamber at the convention • Girondists Early Phase • it was the sans-culottes (people without breeches), the common people whose actions started radicalization of revolution • August 1789 great fear...panic began over the lack of food • 1789-1791 – restructuring of France – power vested in the rich and educated – principles of rationality, efficiency, and humanity applied (values of middle class dominated) – reformed the Catholic Church – suffrage based on property and wealth for men Who controls revolution? • King and Queen in hot water • when the King returned to Paris in disgrace, he signed the first Constitution as prepared by the National Assembly • two camps of revolutionaries • National Assembly changed name to the Legislative Assembly • the king was brought to trial for treason • Queen, Marie-Antoinette • the son, Louis XVII (10 years old) Conciergerie (Paris prison) “It was a time when the revolution began to eat its own children.” • Robespierre led the nation from July 1793 to July 1794 – formed the Committee of Public safety – mobilized the country to fight the wars – universal male suffrage enacted – wanted to create a “Republic of Virtue,” no king but representative government – a fanatic, could not tolerate others’ visions • “Reign of terror” = second phase • French tired of him WEAK WEAK (third phase) • PERIOD OF THERMIDOR (GERONDIST SPIRIT): – want to bring the revolution to an end – restore internal peace, put the country back together again – returned to male suffrage based on property and wealth – things became too relaxed, – corruption, crime, lawlessness, chaos – still fighting wars – Committee of Public Safety stripped of much of its authority – there was an emphasis on morality – freedom of worship restored – revenge was taken against Jacobins and their supporters – establishment of the Directory The Directory • two chamber legislature was established • Council of Elders and Council of Five Hundred • creation of 5 person directory to act as executive branch • Directory sought to reestablish political consensus by assuming a moderate position...it’s goal was stability • Directory’s rule proved unstable with plots and coups (one put down by Bonaparte) • 4 members of the directory were replaced in the spring 1799 elections • these new 4 members were led by Sieyès (a fan of Bonaparte) DISCUSSION QUESTION: What are the commonalities and differences between the French Revolution and today’s revolutions in the Middle East and in North Africa?