Watch This: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-mendel-s-pea-plants- helped-us-understand-genetics-hortensia-jimenezdiaz Tossing Coins If you toss a coin, what is the probability of getting heads? Tails? If you toss a coin 10 times, how many heads and how many tails would you expect to get? Working with a partner, have one person toss a coin ten times while the other person tallies the results on a sheet of paper. Then, switch tasks to produce a separate tally of the second set of 10 tosses. Vocabulary Genetics: the scientific study of ____________ Allele one of a number of _____ forms of a gene Trait Specific __________ that varies from one individual to another Vocabulary Phenotype _____ characteristics of an organism Genotype _______ makeup of an organism Bb Vocabulary Homozygous term used to refer to an organism that has two ______ alleles for a particular trait. Heterozygous term used to refer to an organism that has two ______ alleles for the same trait. Vocabulary Hybrid - offspring of ________ between parents with different traits True-breeding- term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate Vocabulary Probability - likelihood that a particular event will occur. Punnett Square - diagram showing the gene _________ that might result from a genetic cross. Genetic Notes 1. Genes and Dominance a. ________ studied different traits with contrasting characteristics b. _______- a specific characteristic such as seed color or plant height that varies from one individual to another. c. Hybrids- Offspring of parent crosses with ______ traits d. Genes- chemical _______ that determine traits (height) e. Alleles- _______ forms of a gene (short or tall) Genetic Notes f. Principle of _______: Alleles can be dominant or recessive i. Dominant: trait is always seen Ii. Recessive: trait is seen if dominant is not present Genetics Notes 2. Genetics & Probability a. b. Probability- the likelihood that a particular event will occur The principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses 3.Punnett Squares a. Punnett Square is a diagram used to determine the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross (the offspring from two chosen parents) b. Letters in the squares represent alleles Capital letters for _________ alleles Ii. Lowercase letters for ________alleles i. Homozygousorganisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait (TT or tt) : are _______ _______ d. Heterozygousorganisms that have two different alleles for a particular trait (Tt) : are _______ c. TT Tt e. Offspring can have the same ________ but different ________ i. Phenotype- physical characteristics ii. Genotype- genetic makeup 4. Probability and Segregation Mendels results showed i. Homozygous dominant = ¼ (25%) ii. Heterozygous = ½ (50%) iii. Homozygous recessive = ¼ (25%) b. The ratio of tall plants to short is 3:1 c. Due to the 75% dominant traits showing and 25% recessive traits showing, Mendel concluded that segregation occurs a. Review What is probability? The likelihood that a particular event will occur. What is a punnett square? A diagram that shows all gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross. Review How are the principles of probability used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses? The way which the alleles segregate is random and probability allows the calculation of the likelihood that a particular allele combination will occur in offspring. Review What are dominant and recessive alleles? Dominant allele: allele whose from of a trait always show up in an organism if the dominant allele is present Recessive allele: allele whose form of a trait shows up only when the dominant allele is not present.