WRITING A FORMAL OUTLINE PAPER OUTLINE Not all paper require a formal outline Not all researcher need one A short research paper can be developed: -- from key terms -- list of issues -- a rough outline -- a first draft * rough or informal outline can make sure you cover all the key points and it can guide your research PAPER OUTLINE A formal outline can do more: -- it can classifies the issues of your study into clear, logical categories with main headings and one or more levels of subheadings An outline can change your notes, drafts, copied materials into an ordered progress of ideas USING STANDARD OUTLINE SYMBOLS I._________________ First Major Heading A. ______________ Subheading of first degree 1.________ Subheading of second degree 2.________ a._______ Subheading of third degree b._______ (1) ___ (2) ___ Subheading of fourth degree B.________________ II.__________________ Second Major Heading WRITING A FORMAL TOPIC OUTLINE Purpose: quick with phrases Then, the topic outline may use noun phrases Example: III. The sense A. Receptors to detect light 1. Rods of the retina 2. Cones of the retina Another example: III. Sensing the environment A. detecting light 1. sensing dim light with retina rods 2. sensing bright light with retina cones WRITING A FORMAL SENTENCE OUTLINE This type requires full sentences for each heading and subheading There are two advantages: 1. many of them can serve as topic sentences for paragraphs, so that this can accelerate the writing process 2. The subject/verb pattern establishes the logical direction of your thinking * The time invested in writing a complete sentence outline will pay off when you write the rough draft and revise it. PLANNING BEFORE WRITING: I. You should consider your reason for publishing before writing a. Your main reason should be that you have something to say 1.scholars contribute to profession dialogue by publishing 2. your contribution should be timely, and add new ideas to the existing literature 3. There are two types of research that you can conduct: i: groundbreaking work is usually not expected from new scholars ii: expectation for new scholar is usually good steady work 4. Your publication should be part of a coherent and sustained research program b. There is a more practical reason for writing, which is to gain opportunity. 1. academic job seekers gain advantage when with some publications 2. you will also gain favor towards the tenure decision i: number of your publications counts ii: clear research theme and focus will help iii: the quality of the journals you have published in will help IN CLASS EXERCISE Write an extended sentence outline However, you should start with this template. Topic: fun, interesting one --Thesis statement (your view on this topic, clear) -- Develop all the key points to investigate based on your thesis statement * should have at least 3 points -- Develop subheading for each of your key points * remember to mingle your examples to the supporting statements -- Summary/Conclusion * restate your position, and make sure to include a punch line at the end! REVIEW AND DISCUSS YOUR WRITING Please talk!