Other endings - East Penn School District

The Lightning Thief
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By Rick Riordan
What are myths?
• Myths are invented stories which the Ancient Greeks
used to explain why things are, where things came
from, who did something, and how human beings
should be. (i.e. what human ideals and values are).
• Expressions of the fears, problems and aspirations that
people had. These fears and dreams gradually became
a sort of reality to them in the form of myths."
• Myths were written by poets (Homer) who didn’t hesitate
to make changes whenever it suited them
A Myth is…
• A traditional, typically ancient story dealing with
supernatural beings, ancestors, or heroes that serve as
a fundamental type in the worldview of a people, as by
explaining aspects of the natural world or explain the
psychology, customs, or ideals of society.
• A popular belief or story that has become associated
with a person, place, or occurrence, especially one
considered to illustrate a cultural ideal.
• A fiction or half-truth, especially one that forms part of an
ideology (set of beliefs).
Myth Vocabulary
• fate
• enchantment
• curse
• immortal
• chariot
• oath
Question of the Day…
Ch 1-4
• Percy mentions that he has no memories of
his Dad, just this sort of warm glow. Who is
Sally and what does she tell Percy about his
• Sally is Percy’s mom and tells him that his
father was rich and important. Their
relationship was secret. One day, he set sail
across the Atlantic on some important
journey and never came back. He was lost at
sea. (Page 30)
Word of the Day
• Holographic (page 53)
• “Then with an angry roar, the monster closed his fists
around my mother’s neck, and she dissolved before my
eyes, melting into light, a shimmering golden form, as if
she were a holographic projection.
• Meaning: A 3-D image of an object produced using
photography and lasers.
• Root Word: Holograph
• Other ending: holography
• BTW: you can do the “mythologian job more than once.
The Three Fates
FATES: The three Greek Goddesses of Destiny and Fate.
Gods | Female | Immortal
Otherwise known as the Moirae, these timeless old hags weave the threads
of destiny that control your life. The original spin doctors.
They are: CLOTHO who spins the Thread of Life, LACHESIS who allots the
length of the yarn, and ATROPOS who does the snip (the final one).
All the good and evil that befalls you is woven into your destiny and cannot
be altered even one jot. You may find this a little unfair, but it's the stuff
great Greek tragedies are made of.
Click to learn
The Furies…
• Furies. Female spirits who
tormented evil-doers, particularly
those who had committed some
crime against a family member.
When Theseus and Peirithous
tried to abduct Persephone from
the Underworld, her husband
Hades tricked them into sitting on
a bench to which they became
permanently attached. Then he
unleashed the Furies on them.
The Furies, who are usually characterized as three sisters (Alecto,
Tisiphone, and Magaera) are the children of Gaia and Uranus. They
resulted from a drop of Uranus' blood falling onto the earth. They were
placed in the Underworld by Virgil and it is there that they reside,
tormenting evildoers and sinners. However, Greek poets saw them as
pursuing sinners on Earth. The Furies are cruel, but are also
renowned for being very fair.
Theseus and The Minotaur
(A Greek Hero)
The Test
• It was by lifting a boulder that
Theseus, grandson of the king
of Troezen, first proved himself
a hero. He was sixteen at the
time. He had been raised by
his grandfather and his mother,
Princess Aethra. One day the
princess called Theseus to her
side. It was time, she said, that
he learned of his father, who
was the ruler of a mighty
kingdom. This was news to
Theseus, who had been under
the impression that his father
was one of the gods. "Before I
divulge his identity," said the
princess, "you must meet the
challenges your father has set
• The Labyrinth (one of the
• The Labyrinth was a maze so
cleverly and intricately
contrived by its builder
Daedalus that once thrown
inside, a victim could never find
the way out again. Sooner or
later, he or she would round a
corner and come face to face
with the all-devouring Minotaur.
This was the fate which awaited
Theseus. It is clear from the
myth that the Labyrinth was a
maze from which none could
escape because it was so
diabolically meandering. Hence
the Minotaur was not just its
monster but its prisoner.
When Theseus first entered the maze
he tied off one end of a ball of thread
which Ariadne had given him, and he
played out the thread as he advanced
deeper and deeper into the
labyrinthine passages. Many artists
have depicted Theseus killing the
Minotaur with his sword or club, but it
is hard to see how he could have
concealed such bulky weapons in his
clothing. More probable are the
versions of the tale which have him
coming upon the Minotaur as it slept
and then, in properly heroic fashion,
beating it to death with his bare fists.
Or maybe he broke off one of the
creature's horns and stabbed him.
Then he followed the thread back to
the entrance. Otherwise he would
have died of starvation before making
his escape.
• satyrs (SAY-turz or
SAT-urz) Woodland
spirits who looked like
men with various
animal features such
as horses' tails or
goats' legs.
Occupation: Lord of the sky & Chief
K.F.: Overthrowing Dad, Titan Kronos
W.O.C: Lightning Bolt
Symbol: Eagle
Marital Status: Married to Hera
Demigod kids: Perseus and Heracles
Goddess of
Occupation: god of the sea
K.F.: Brother of Zeus; changeable: like
the sea; sometimes violent or calm;
created horses from sea foam.
W.O.C: Trident (stirs up storms at sea)
Marital Status: Single and looking…
Demigod kids: Theseus
Visit Myth-Web
home to learn
more about the
Discussion 1-4
Why does Percy decide to study for the Latin exam even though he’s given up on his other
Have you ever had a teacher you wanted to do well for? If so, what made you respect that
teacher’s opinion of you? If not, what would a teacher have to be like to make you respect
Percy has been diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder).
The main traits of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The
ADHD child often has trouble keeping his mind on one thing and organizing a
task. He feels restless and fidgety. He may blurt out comments or act without
thinking. Does this profile fit Percy? Discuss how Percy does/does not seem like a child with ADHD.
4. What responsibility does Grover claim to have, and why does this strike Percy as strange?
5. What does Percy think the yarn-cutting means? Does you agree? Explain.
6. “The best people get the worst luck.” Do you agree? Can you think of a time when something
terrible happened to a good person? Conversely, do bad people have good things happen to them?
7. Describe Percy’s dream. What do you think it means?
8. Is there anyone you would sacrifice your life for? Explain who and why.
9. After the monster disintegrates, what gets Percy moving when all he wants to do is collapse?
10. Take a guess: Who is the "familiar face" that Percy thinks he sees?
Question of the Day 5-7
Why was Percy placed in cabin 11?
Since Percy is still “undetermined” (they
don’t know who his father is) they place
him with Luke in Cabin eleven, which
takes all newcomers and visitors,
because Hermes is their patron and
he’s the god of travelers.
Word of the Day Ch 5-7
Page 96: Annabeth gave me a cautious look. She
didn’t want to burst my bubble. “Maybe he’ll
send you a sign. That’s the only way to know for
sure: your father has to send you a sign claiming
you as his son. Sometimes it happens.”
Meaning: Careful; having or showing care and lack
of haste
Root Word: cautious
Other endings: caution, cautiousness, cautiously
Mnemonic: Carl Cautiously Crossed at the Corner
Question of the Day Ch 5-7
If someone granted you immortality (being your present age,
just as you are, forever) would you take it? Explain
Describe Mr. D. Anticipate: Will he be a hero or a villain? Why
do you think so?
According to Chiron, what is the big question that everyone
wants answered? Take a guess: what's the answer? (p. 73)
Percy says the big girl from the Ares cabin reminds him of
Nancy Bobofit. Is Clarisse like Nancy? Why or why not?
If you could go to summer camp year-round instead of
attending school, would you do it? Why or why not? What if
the trade-off was that you couldn't ever leave the camp?
What does it mean to be "undetermined"? Name something in
your life, which is “undetermined.”
In what way does Percy feel different once he gets to the
bonfire? Name a time you felt the same way.
Meet the Characters…
Click link and then
Oympians, god and monsters
• Dionysus was the god of wine, the son of Zeus
and Semele, and the rescuer of Ariadne after
she had been abandoned by Theseus. Dionysus
also rescued his mother from the Underworld,
after Zeus showed her his true nature as storm
god and consumed her in lightning. It was
Dionysus who granted Midas the power to turn
whatever he touched into gold, then was kind
enough to take the power back when it proved
• A kindly centaur, Chiron was sired by
Cronus (Kronos) when in the form of a
horse. The other centaurs, who were
notoriously uncivilized and prone to
violence, were of a different lineage.
Chiron was tutor to Jason and Heracles.
Sounds like Greek to me!!
• Nymphs and Naiads--Young and beautiful
female spirits of trees, water and other aspects
of nature. Nymphs were lesser deities in the
sense that they were neither human nor
• The Olympian Council--Olympians (uhLIM-pee-uns or oh-LIM-pee-uns) The
supreme gods of the Greek pantheon, who
were thought to dwell on the heights of
Mount Olympus.
Marriage of Zeus and Hera
On his second marriage, Zeus married
Hera. Hera was the supreme goddess,
goddess of marriage and childbirth and took
special care of married women.
Hera did not desire to be married to Zeus,
who was also her brother, as she did not
see him fit for marriage. After all, he did
swallow his first wife, Titaness
Metis. Because of this and Zeus's known
attractiveness to women other than his wife,
Hera refused to marry Zeus for three
hundred years.
One spring, Zeus caused a terrible
thunderstorm and turned himself into a
disheveled cuckoo. He flew in through
Hera’s window, all wet and ruffled, causing
Hera to feel sorry for the small bird. She
held the bird against her chest and hugged it
tenderly. Zeus took this opportunity to
immediately turn back into himself and
wooed her with such passion that she finally
decided, after three hundred years, to marry
• The god of war, or warlike
frenzy. Though an immortal
deity, he lost to Heracles in
battle and was almost killed
when stuffed into a jar by two
giants. When another hero
wounded him during the Trojan
War, he received little
sympathy from his father Zeus.
Ares was handsome and cruel.
He is often depicted carrying a
bloodstained spear. His throne
on Mount Olympus was said to
be covered in human skin.
• Symbol: wild boar; spear
goddess of wisdom, battle, and
useful arts
Her symbol was the owl. She was
originally the Great Goddess in the
form of a bird.
Zeus was once married to Metis, a
daughter of Ocean who was renowned
for her wisdom. When Metis became
pregnant, Zeus was warned by Earth
that a son born to Metis would
overthrow him, just as he had usurped
his own father's throne.
So Zeus swallowed Metis. In time he
was overcome with a splitting
headache and summoned help from
the craftsman god Hephaestus (or,
some say, the Titan Prometheus).
Hephaestus cleaved Zeus's forehead
with an ax, and Athena sprang forth
fully armed.
The god of travelers, merchants, thieves
and messengersand
A prankster and inventive genius from birth,
Hermes aided the heroes Odysseus and
Perseus in their quests. Hermes was the
son of Zeus and a mountain nymph.
As a newborn he was remarkably
precocious. On his very first day of life, he
found the empty shell of a tortoise and
perceived its utility as a sounding chamber.
Stringing sinews across it, he created the
first lyre.
Hermes was known for his helpfulness to
mankind, both in his capacity as immortal
herald and on his own initiative. When
Perseus set out to face the Gorgon Medusa,
Hermes aided him in the quest. According to
one version of the myth, he loaned the hero
his own magic sandals, which conferred
upon the wearer the ability to fly
Symbol: Caduceus, winged helm,
The Garden of the Hesperides
• The Hesperides, or Daughters
of Evening, were nymphs
assigned by the goddess Hera
to guard certain apples which
she had received as a wedding
present. These were kept in a
grove surrounded by a high
wall and guarded by a dragon
named Ladon, whose many
heads spoke simultaneously in
a babel of tongues. The grove
was located in some far
western land in the mountains
named for Atlas. Heracles
retrieved the apples as one of
his Labors.
Ch 8-10 Question of the Day
(rip tide is found in passes or channels, rip
the surf zone)
is a strong
and tells
of water
seaward What is
only to
it in returning
from near the shore.
it disguised as?
• He gives him a sword. It’s Greek name is
“Anaklusmos,” but translated it means
“riptide.” It was disguised as a pen, but
when you take the cap the pen grows into
a sword.
Word of the Day Ch 8-10
• Prophecies
• Page 140: I heard a voice slithering into my ear.
I am the spirit of Delphi, speaker of the
prophecies of Phoebus Apollo,slayer of the
mighty python. Approach, seeker, and ask.
• Meaning: prediction of future events that are
believed to reveal the will of a god.
• Root word: prophecy
• Other ending: prophesize, prophesized
• Mnemonic:
The Oracle of Apollo
• Apollo hunted down the
python that had chased his
mother. He killed it at Delphi
and a huge temple was built
to him there. He gave his
priestesses the gift of telling
the future. Their prophecies,
or Oracles, were famous
throughout Greece.
Ch 8-10 Discussion Questions
What sort of creature tried to attack young Percy when he was taking a nap in
daycare? What would you have done if you were his mom?
Chiron says the United States eagle is actually a symbol of who? What do you
think the United States symbol should be? Why?
The half-bloods learn of their talents based on their fathers or mothers. If you were
forced to decide right now what career you would choose? What skills would make
you good at that career? What is a career you would definitely not choose?
When you find out Percy’s true identity, are you surprised or did you see it
coming? What clues were given earlier in the book? What is his true identity?
Why does Percy feel miserable once he gets his own cabin? Would you? Why?
How do you think the Oracle’s prophecy will come true for Percy? How will he be
betray by a friend? What does it mean: “he will fail to save what matters most in
the end”?
Many of the campers at Camp Half-Blood have their own magic item. Clarisse has
an electric spear. Annabeth has a baseball cap that turns her invisible. What
magic item would make sense for Percy, as the son of the Sea God? Explain.
Greek to me…
• Poseidon
• The division of the world by Zeus, Poseidon and
• Artemis
• Apollo Slays the Python
• The Oracle at Delphi
• How the City of Athens got its Name
• The Gorgons
• Perseus and Medusa
Poseidon was the god of the sea,
earthquakes and horses. Although
he was officially one of the supreme
gods of Mount Olympus, he spent
most of his time in his watery domain.
Poseidon was brother to Zeus and
Hades. These three gods divided up
creation. Zeus became ruler of the
sky, Hades got dominion of the
Underworld and Poseidon was given
all water, both fresh and salt.
Although there were various rivers
personified as gods, these would have
been technically under Poseidon's
sway. Poseidon had married
Nereus's daughter, the sea-nymph
Symbol: Trident and Horse
The Awesome Huntress
• Artemis is the twin sister
of Apollo. She is the
goddess of hunting,
archery, wild places,
wild animals, childbirth
and rites of passage.
She operates on the
borders, taming the wild.
• Symbol: She-Bear
Apollo slays the python
The god of Music, medicine, poetry,
archery, bachelors Like most of his fellow
Olympians, Apollo did not hesitate to
intervene in human affairs. Of all the
heroes besieging the city of Troy in the
Trojan War
When someone died suddenly, he was said
to have been struck down by one of Apollo's
arrows. Homer's epic of the Trojan War
begins with the god causing a plague by
raining arrows down upon the Greek camp.
As god of music, Apollo is often depicted
playing the lyre. He did not invent this
instrument, however, but was given it by
Hermes in compensation for cattle theft.
Some say that Apollo did invent the lute,
although he was best known for his skill on
the lyre
Symbol: Lyre
(See myth about slaying the python)
Oracle of Delphi
1. You shall go west and face the god
who has
• turned.
The answer given by
to a
2. You shallafind
stolen and
by a mortal. Or
see it safely
the place where the
3. You shall be betrayed by one who
answer was given.
calls you friend.
Or the human agent
4. You shallconveying
fail to save what
the divine
most, in the
• What 4 things does
the Oracle predict for
Who do you think will betray Percy?
Percy? (page 141)
What matters most that Percy will fail to
• Monstrous sisters with snakes
for hair, tusks like boars and
lolling tongues. The only
mortal one of the three was
Medusa. She had the power of
turning to stone whoever
looked at her, or wHomever
she looked at (the myth can be
interpreted both ways). The
hero Perseus, defending his
mother from the unwanted
advances of King Polydectes
of Seriphos, swore to bring him
Medusa's head.
Ch 11-14 Question of the Day
• What does Madusa plan to do with Percy,
Grover and Annabeth and how? Why is she
angry at Annabeth?
• If they look directly at her face, they will turn
into statues. She seeks revenge because,
Annabeth’s mom (Athena) turned her into a
gorgon when she caught her with Poseidon
in Athena’s temple.
Ch 11-14 Word of the Day
• Fatal
• Page 209: Riptide was now a shining bronze blade in my
hands, and as the Chimara turned, I slashed at its neck.
That was my fatal mistake. The blade sparked
harmlessly off the dog collar. I tried to regain my
balance, but I was so worried about defending myself
against the fiery lion’s mouth, I completely forgot about
the serpent tail until it whipped around and sank its fangs
into my calf.
• Meaning: causing destruction or ruin
• Root word: fate
• Other endings: None
• Mnemonic: It was his fate to eat all the poison on the
Ch 11-14 Discussion Questions
1. What important information does Percy find in Medusa’s office?
2. Why do you think Percy sends Medusa’s head to Mount Olympus? Do you
think this is a good idea?
3. What is Grover’s dream? Why does it sound so hopeless to Percy? Does it
to you? Explain.
4. Who do you think is talking to Percy in the dream? Who is the voice in the
5. If you were offered the choice in Percy’s dream – to save your own parent’s
life or complete your quest and prevent a terrible war – what would you
choose? Why?
When battling Echidna and the Chimera, why does Percy decide he has
no choice but to jump? What would you have done in his place?
When he lands in the Mississippi River, what does Percy realize that
amazes him?
Why does Percy feel ashamed that Poseidon saved him? Explain.
What message does the woman in the water bring to Percy? What is her
warning? Who do you think she is?
Perseus and Medusa
• The sole mortal of the
monstrous Gorgons, slain by
Perseus. The fact that the hero
used a reflective shield given
him by Athena to avoid looking
directly at Medusa suggests
that the Gorgon had the power
of turning to stone whoever
looked upon her. But most
versions of the myth put it that
she turned to stone whoever
she looked upon. This was not
an issue for Perseus, since
Medusa was asleep when he
chopped off her head
Geek to Greek 101
Chimaera (kye-MEE-ruh). Firebreathing monster slain by the hero
Bellerophon; related to Cerberus and
the Hydra. The Chimaera was part
lion, part goat and part snake,
although accounts differed as to how
these parts were assembled. King
Iobates of Lycia sent Bellerophon
after the beast in the expectation that
the hero would never return. But with
the help of the gods and the flying
horse Pegasus, Bellerophon rid Lycia
of its multiple monster.
• The god of of
shepherds and flocks,
son of Hermes and a
nymph. Pan was born
with the legs and horns of
a goat. Pan was
considered to be the
cause of the sudden fear
that sometimes comes for
no reason, especially in
lonely places. That's why
it's called "panic".
The Nemean Lion
• Preternatural beast with
an impenetrable pelt,
nevertheless vanquished
and carried to Mycenae
by Heracles as one of his
Labors. These Labors
were assigned Heracles
by his cousin Eurystheus,
who hid in a storage jar
when he saw the great
hero coming with the lion
on his shoulder.
Hercules battling the Nemean Lion
• The mate of the horrible
monster Typhon, Echidna
was half-woman, halfserpent. She had many
monstrous children,
which Zeus allowed to
live as a challenge to
future heroes. Her
offspring included
Cerberus, the Nemean
Lion and the Chimera.
• Typhon is the
offspring of Gaia and
Tartarus. His mate is
Echidna. Hissing like
a hundred snakes
and roaring like a
hundred lions, he tore
up whole mountains
and threw them at the
Was a hero and the gods came
to his aid, suggesting that a
lump of lead affixed to the end
of his spear would have a
decidedly deadly effect. on the
chimera when thrust into the
monster's maw, it would cause
it to gag. And when melted by
the beast's fiery breath, it
would trickle down into its
innards and cause a fatal case
of heartburn.
Ch 15-17 Question of the Day
• What is Iris messaging and how does it
• The rainbow goddess, Iris, carries
messages for the gods. You create a
rainbow (they used water from the car
wash) and throw a drachma into it.
Then you can speak and talk to
someone in the rainbow-puddle.
Ch 15-17 Word of the Day
Aunt Lee, I don’t
want to do this,
P. 243: I gritted my teeth.
was probably a deadly insult to
but ItI must!!
refuse something from a god, but I didn’t want anything
that Ares had touched. Reluctantly, I slung the
backpack over my shoulder. I knew my anger was being
caused by the war god’s presence, but I was still itching
to punch him in the nose.
Meaning: not eager; showing no willingness to do
Root word: reluctant
Other endings: None
Mnemonic: He reluctantly carried lucky Aunt Lee.
Ch 15-17 Discussion Questions
Annabeth says, “Even strength has to bow to wisdom.” Do you think
that’s true? Would you rather be exceptionally strong or exceptionally
Luke says: “Tell Grover it’ll be better this time! Nobody will get turned into
a pine tree . . .” What does this tell you about Grover’s past?
When they are trapped in the pool whom do you think Percy is angrier
with –Hephaestus or Ares? Why?
What’s in the backpack Ares gives Percy? If you were him, would you
have accepted this gift? Explain.
Percy’s dream has three different parts – what does he see in each
scene? What do the scenes mean? (page
How does Percy snap Annabeth out of her trance at the casino? Why
does this frighten her?
What does Nereid the spirit of the sea (p 271) give to Percy? How do you
think it will help him on his quest?
How does Percy trick Crusty (Procrustes)? What would you have done?
How does Percy find the address for the Underworld? Do you think it’s a
trap? Why?
Arachne and the Weaving Contest
• She was an arrogant girl from
the Greek town of Kolophon in
Lydia who once dared
challenge the goddess Athena
to a contest in weaving. In the
match Athena portrayed the
gods seated in glory upon high
thrones, while Arachne
represented them in the guise
of animals chasing after mortal
girls. Athena was furious at her
and transformed her into a
spider (Greek arakhnês).
Arachnephobia: Fear of
Ares and Aprhodite
• Aphrodite was the
goddess of love and
beauty. The gods and
humans were always
falling for her, because
she was so pretty. Ares
was one of her suitors
and it angered Athena
when they met in her
temple!! Aphrodite was
married to Hephaestus,
the homely craftsmangod, who sought
revenge on the couple.
The Land of the Lotus Eaters…
• On his way back from the
Trojan War,Odysseus
encountered the Land
ofthe Lotus Eaters, where
the inhabitants lived in
perfect contentment
doing nothing but eating
lotuses all day. This lazy
lifestyle was dangerous
because it tempted
Odysseus’ sailors to
forget about their journey
and remain on the island.
How is this like the Wizard of Oz?
Name means "he who stretches.”He
kept a house by the side of the road
where he offered hospitality to passing
strangers, who were invited in for a
pleasant meal and a night's rest in his
very special bed. Procrustes described
it as having the unique property that its
length exactly matched whomsoever
lay down upon it. What Procrustes
didn't volunteer was the method by
which this "one-size-fits-all" was
achieved, namely as soon as the
guest lay down Procrustes went to
work upon, stretching him on the rack
if he was too short for the bed and
chopping off his legs if he was too
long. Theseus turned the tables on
Procrustes, fatally adjusting him to fit
his own bed
The Trojan War…
in Greek mythology, war between the Greeks and the people of Troy. The
strife began after the Trojan prince Paris abducted Helen, wife of Menelaus
of Sparta. When Menelaus demanded her return, the Trojans refused.
Menelaus then persuaded his brother Agamemnon to lead an army against
Troy. At Aulis, troopships gathered, led by the greatest Greek heroes—
Achilles, Patroclus, Diomed, Odysseus, Nestor, and the two warriors named
Ajax. In order to win favorable winds for the journey, Agamemnon sacrificed
his daughter Iphigenia to Artemis. The winds came and the fleet set sail for
Troy. For nine years the Greeks ravaged Troy's surrounding cities and
countryside, but the city itself, well fortified and commanded by Hector and
other sons of the royal household, held out. Finally the Greeks built a large
hollow wooden horse in which a small group of warriors were concealed.
The other Greeks appeared to sail for home, leaving behind only the horse
and Sinon, who deceitfully persuaded the Trojans, despite the warnings of
Cassandra and Laocoön, to take the horse within the city walls. At night the
Greeks returned; their companions crept out of the horse and opened the
city gates, and Troy was destroyed.
Ch 18-20 Question of the Day
• How does Annabeth save them from
• She plays fetch with a red rubber ball
and distracts him from attacking them as they
walk by.
Play Rock-a-bye Cerebus: Click here
Ch 18-20 Word of the Day…
• Mournful
• P. 298: Grover murmmured, “Well, Percy, what have we learned
• “That 3-headed dogs prefer red rubber balls over sticks?”
• “No, what we’ve learned is your plan really bites!”
• I wasn’t sure about that. I thought mayber Annabeth and I had both
had the right idea. Even here in the Underworld, everybody—even
monsters—needed a little attention once in a while. I pretended not
to see Annabeth wipe a tear from her cheek as she listened to the
mournful keening of Cerebus in the distance longing for his new
• Meaning: Expressing or feeling deep sadness
• Root word: mourn
• Other endings: mournfulness, mourning, mourner
• Mnemonic: This morning we were out of cereal, which made me
Ch 18-20 Discussion Questions…
1. What does Percy realize about monsters at the end of the chapter? Do you feel sorry
for Cerberus? Would you have risked playing fetch with him, if you were Annabeth?
2. Grover says: “Most people, well, they just lived. Nothing special, good or bad.” Do you
think this is true? Do think people are good by nature, or bad, or just neutral? Explain.
3. Who is the most evil person you can think of – from history or from current times?
What makes this person evil? Can an evil person ever have good qualities? Explain.
4. Why was Percy’s backpack getting heavy? How do you feel about Ares?
5. What terrible choice faces Percy when he decides to use the pearls? Would
you have made the same choice he does? Why or why not?
6. Ares says the best kind of war is when relatives fight each. Why would this be the most
vicious kind of fight? Explain.
7. Which failures does Ares point to when he says Percy “doesn’t have what it
takes”? Is this a fair criticism? Why or why not?
8. How does Percy’s ADHD keep him alive in the fight? Explain.
9. Why is important that the Furies witness Percy’s battle?
10. At the end of the chapter, what does Percy decide he must do to complete the
Draw a map of the Underworld based on the
description in the book. Then check out Grover’s
• Minstrel whose music
was so sweet trees would
uproot themselves to
follow in his footsteps.
Charming Charon and
Cerberus (he lulled it to
sleep by playing his lyre),
he attempted to rescue
his wife Eurydice from
Hades. He saved the
Argonauts from the
Hercules and Cerebus…
• The final labor of
Hercules (a hero, not
a god) was to bring
the 3-headed
watchdog of the
Cerberus, to the
surface without using
any weapons;
Hercules seized two
of Cerberus' heads
and the dog gave in.
• Charon the Boatman.
Charon wouldn't take
anyone across the
River Styx unless
they met 2 conditions• Pay a bribe in the
form of a coin under
the tongue.
• they had to be dead
Beautiful daughter of Zeus and Demeter;
sometimes considered an Olympian. While
gathering flowers in a field one day,
Persephone was abducted to the
Underworld by Hades, who arose in his
chariot from a fissure in the ground.
Demeter, goddess of the harvest, was
heartbroken, and while she wandered the
length and breadth of the earth in search of
her daughter, the crops withered and it
became perpetual winter. At length Hades
was persuaded to surrender Persephone for
one half of every year, the spring and
summer seasons when flowers bloom and
the earth bears fruit once more. The half
year that Persephone spends in the
Underworld as Hades' queen coincides with
the barren season. The heroes Peirithous
and Theseus attempted to abduct
Persephone and bring her back to the land
of the living.
Chapter 21 & 22 Question of the
• What is unique about Luke’s backbiter
• It can slay mortals and immortals since
one side is celestial bronze and the
other side is steel.
Ch 21 & 22 Word of the Day
• Disarmed
• P 367: “I got overconfident. Zeus sent out his sons and
daughters to find the stolen bolt—Artemis, Apollo, my
father, Hermes. But is was Ares who caught me. I could
have beaten him, but I wasn’t careful enough. He
disarmed me, took the items of power, threatened to
return them to Olympus and burn me alive.
• Meaning: To give up weapons or win someone over
• Root word: Disarm
• Other endings: disarming, disarmer, disarmed, disarms
• Mnemonic: I took the weapon from his arms.
Ch 21 & 22 Discussion
Which would rather have – a parent who is distant and doesn’t show much
emotion, or a parent who very affectionate and shows a lot of emotion? Why?
Could there be disadvantages to both?
Who was speaking from the pit? Why do think Zeus doesn’t want to talk about it?
How do you think Poseidon feels about Percy? How can you tell?
4. Imagine Percy has to write a letter to his father, Poseidon, explaining
the choice he made not to petrify Gabe. What would he say?
How would he explain his choice? Would he want to tell his father
anything else? Any wishes or requests?
5. If someone knew something really bad that was going to happen in
your life, and there was nothing you could do about it, would you rather
have them tell you or keep it a secret? Why?
6. Why do you think Percy has so much trouble deciding whether to
stay year round or go to seventh grade? What would you choose? Why?
7. Luke says, “Western Civilization is a disease.” What do you think he means by that?
Do you agree?
8. What turned Luke so bitter?
9. How did Annabeth take Percy’s advice? Do you think it will work out for her? Why or
why not?