The Lightning Thief Click on the book to enter.. By Rick Riordan www.rickriordan.com What are myths? • Myths are invented stories which the Ancient Greeks used to explain why things are, where things came from, who did something, and how human beings should be. (i.e. what human ideals and values are). • Expressions of the fears, problems and aspirations that people had. These fears and dreams gradually became a sort of reality to them in the form of myths." • Myths were written by poets (Homer) who didn’t hesitate to make changes whenever it suited them A Myth is… • A traditional, typically ancient story dealing with supernatural beings, ancestors, or heroes that serve as a fundamental type in the worldview of a people, as by explaining aspects of the natural world or explain the psychology, customs, or ideals of society. • A popular belief or story that has become associated with a person, place, or occurrence, especially one considered to illustrate a cultural ideal. • A fiction or half-truth, especially one that forms part of an ideology (set of beliefs). Myth Vocabulary • fate • enchantment • curse • immortal • chariot • oath Question of the Day… Ch 1-4 • Percy mentions that he has no memories of his Dad, just this sort of warm glow. Who is Sally and what does she tell Percy about his father? • Sally is Percy’s mom and tells him that his father was rich and important. Their relationship was secret. One day, he set sail across the Atlantic on some important journey and never came back. He was lost at sea. (Page 30) Word of the Day • Holographic (page 53) • “Then with an angry roar, the monster closed his fists around my mother’s neck, and she dissolved before my eyes, melting into light, a shimmering golden form, as if she were a holographic projection. • Meaning: A 3-D image of an object produced using photography and lasers. • Root Word: Holograph • Other ending: holography • BTW: you can do the “mythologian job more than once. The Three Fates • FATES: The three Greek Goddesses of Destiny and Fate. Stats: Gods | Female | Immortal • MOTHER: THEMIS FATHER: ZEUS Otherwise known as the Moirae, these timeless old hags weave the threads of destiny that control your life. The original spin doctors. They are: CLOTHO who spins the Thread of Life, LACHESIS who allots the length of the yarn, and ATROPOS who does the snip (the final one). All the good and evil that befalls you is woven into your destiny and cannot be altered even one jot. You may find this a little unfair, but it's the stuff great Greek tragedies are made of. Click to learn more The Furies… • Furies. Female spirits who tormented evil-doers, particularly those who had committed some crime against a family member. When Theseus and Peirithous tried to abduct Persephone from the Underworld, her husband Hades tricked them into sitting on a bench to which they became permanently attached. Then he unleashed the Furies on them. The Furies, who are usually characterized as three sisters (Alecto, Tisiphone, and Magaera) are the children of Gaia and Uranus. They resulted from a drop of Uranus' blood falling onto the earth. They were placed in the Underworld by Virgil and it is there that they reside, tormenting evildoers and sinners. However, Greek poets saw them as pursuing sinners on Earth. The Furies are cruel, but are also renowned for being very fair. Theseus and The Minotaur (A Greek Hero) • The Test • It was by lifting a boulder that Theseus, grandson of the king of Troezen, first proved himself a hero. He was sixteen at the time. He had been raised by his grandfather and his mother, Princess Aethra. One day the princess called Theseus to her side. It was time, she said, that he learned of his father, who was the ruler of a mighty kingdom. This was news to Theseus, who had been under the impression that his father was one of the gods. "Before I divulge his identity," said the princess, "you must meet the challenges your father has set you." • The Labyrinth (one of the challenges) • The Labyrinth was a maze so cleverly and intricately contrived by its builder Daedalus that once thrown inside, a victim could never find the way out again. Sooner or later, he or she would round a corner and come face to face with the all-devouring Minotaur. This was the fate which awaited Theseus. It is clear from the myth that the Labyrinth was a maze from which none could escape because it was so diabolically meandering. Hence the Minotaur was not just its monster but its prisoner. • When Theseus first entered the maze he tied off one end of a ball of thread which Ariadne had given him, and he played out the thread as he advanced deeper and deeper into the labyrinthine passages. Many artists have depicted Theseus killing the Minotaur with his sword or club, but it is hard to see how he could have concealed such bulky weapons in his clothing. More probable are the versions of the tale which have him coming upon the Minotaur as it slept and then, in properly heroic fashion, beating it to death with his bare fists. Or maybe he broke off one of the creature's horns and stabbed him. Then he followed the thread back to the entrance. Otherwise he would have died of starvation before making his escape. Satyrs • satyrs (SAY-turz or SAT-urz) Woodland spirits who looked like men with various animal features such as horses' tails or goats' legs. Zeus Occupation: Lord of the sky & Chief god K.F.: Overthrowing Dad, Titan Kronos W.O.C: Lightning Bolt Symbol: Eagle Marital Status: Married to Hera Demigod kids: Perseus and Heracles Goddess of marriage Heracles Perseus Poseidon Occupation: god of the sea K.F.: Brother of Zeus; changeable: like the sea; sometimes violent or calm; created horses from sea foam. W.O.C: Trident (stirs up storms at sea) Marital Status: Single and looking… Demigod kids: Theseus Visit Myth-Web home to learn more about the demigods Chiron Discussion 1-4 Why does Percy decide to study for the Latin exam even though he’s given up on his other subjects? 2. Have you ever had a teacher you wanted to do well for? If so, what made you respect that teacher’s opinion of you? If not, what would a teacher have to be like to make you respect them? 3. Percy has been diagnosed with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). The main traits of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The ADHD child often has trouble keeping his mind on one thing and organizing a task. He feels restless and fidgety. He may blurt out comments or act without thinking. Does this profile fit Percy? Discuss how Percy does/does not seem like a child with ADHD. 4. What responsibility does Grover claim to have, and why does this strike Percy as strange? 5. What does Percy think the yarn-cutting means? Does you agree? Explain. 6. “The best people get the worst luck.” Do you agree? Can you think of a time when something terrible happened to a good person? Conversely, do bad people have good things happen to them? 7. Describe Percy’s dream. What do you think it means? 8. Is there anyone you would sacrifice your life for? Explain who and why. 9. After the monster disintegrates, what gets Percy moving when all he wants to do is collapse? 10. Take a guess: Who is the "familiar face" that Percy thinks he sees? 1. Question of the Day 5-7 Why was Percy placed in cabin 11? Since Percy is still “undetermined” (they don’t know who his father is) they place him with Luke in Cabin eleven, which takes all newcomers and visitors, because Hermes is their patron and he’s the god of travelers. Word of the Day Ch 5-7 Cautious Page 96: Annabeth gave me a cautious look. She didn’t want to burst my bubble. “Maybe he’ll send you a sign. That’s the only way to know for sure: your father has to send you a sign claiming you as his son. Sometimes it happens.” Meaning: Careful; having or showing care and lack of haste Root Word: cautious Other endings: caution, cautiousness, cautiously Mnemonic: Carl Cautiously Crossed at the Corner Question of the Day Ch 5-7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. If someone granted you immortality (being your present age, just as you are, forever) would you take it? Explain Describe Mr. D. Anticipate: Will he be a hero or a villain? Why do you think so? According to Chiron, what is the big question that everyone wants answered? Take a guess: what's the answer? (p. 73) Percy says the big girl from the Ares cabin reminds him of Nancy Bobofit. Is Clarisse like Nancy? Why or why not? If you could go to summer camp year-round instead of attending school, would you do it? Why or why not? What if the trade-off was that you couldn't ever leave the camp? What does it mean to be "undetermined"? Name something in your life, which is “undetermined.” In what way does Percy feel different once he gets to the bonfire? Name a time you felt the same way. Meet the Characters… Click link and then Oympians, god and monsters http://www.percyjacksonbooks.com/ Dionysus • Dionysus was the god of wine, the son of Zeus and Semele, and the rescuer of Ariadne after she had been abandoned by Theseus. Dionysus also rescued his mother from the Underworld, after Zeus showed her his true nature as storm god and consumed her in lightning. It was Dionysus who granted Midas the power to turn whatever he touched into gold, then was kind enough to take the power back when it proved inconvenient Chiron • A kindly centaur, Chiron was sired by Cronus (Kronos) when in the form of a horse. The other centaurs, who were notoriously uncivilized and prone to violence, were of a different lineage. Chiron was tutor to Jason and Heracles. Sounds like Greek to me!! • Nymphs and Naiads--Young and beautiful female spirits of trees, water and other aspects of nature. Nymphs were lesser deities in the sense that they were neither human nor immortal. • The Olympian Council--Olympians (uhLIM-pee-uns or oh-LIM-pee-uns) The supreme gods of the Greek pantheon, who were thought to dwell on the heights of Mount Olympus. Marriage of Zeus and Hera • On his second marriage, Zeus married Hera. Hera was the supreme goddess, goddess of marriage and childbirth and took special care of married women. Hera did not desire to be married to Zeus, who was also her brother, as she did not see him fit for marriage. After all, he did swallow his first wife, Titaness Metis. Because of this and Zeus's known attractiveness to women other than his wife, Hera refused to marry Zeus for three hundred years. One spring, Zeus caused a terrible thunderstorm and turned himself into a disheveled cuckoo. He flew in through Hera’s window, all wet and ruffled, causing Hera to feel sorry for the small bird. She held the bird against her chest and hugged it tenderly. Zeus took this opportunity to immediately turn back into himself and wooed her with such passion that she finally decided, after three hundred years, to marry him. Ares • The god of war, or warlike frenzy. Though an immortal deity, he lost to Heracles in battle and was almost killed when stuffed into a jar by two giants. When another hero wounded him during the Trojan War, he received little sympathy from his father Zeus. Ares was handsome and cruel. He is often depicted carrying a bloodstained spear. His throne on Mount Olympus was said to be covered in human skin. • Symbol: wild boar; spear Athena • • • • goddess of wisdom, battle, and useful arts Her symbol was the owl. She was originally the Great Goddess in the form of a bird. Zeus was once married to Metis, a daughter of Ocean who was renowned for her wisdom. When Metis became pregnant, Zeus was warned by Earth that a son born to Metis would overthrow him, just as he had usurped his own father's throne. So Zeus swallowed Metis. In time he was overcome with a splitting headache and summoned help from the craftsman god Hephaestus (or, some say, the Titan Prometheus). Hephaestus cleaved Zeus's forehead with an ax, and Athena sprang forth fully armed. Hermes • • • • • The god of travelers, merchants, thieves and messengersand A prankster and inventive genius from birth, Hermes aided the heroes Odysseus and Perseus in their quests. Hermes was the son of Zeus and a mountain nymph. As a newborn he was remarkably precocious. On his very first day of life, he found the empty shell of a tortoise and perceived its utility as a sounding chamber. Stringing sinews across it, he created the first lyre. Hermes was known for his helpfulness to mankind, both in his capacity as immortal herald and on his own initiative. When Perseus set out to face the Gorgon Medusa, Hermes aided him in the quest. According to one version of the myth, he loaned the hero his own magic sandals, which conferred upon the wearer the ability to fly Symbol: Caduceus, winged helm, sandals The Garden of the Hesperides • The Hesperides, or Daughters of Evening, were nymphs assigned by the goddess Hera to guard certain apples which she had received as a wedding present. These were kept in a grove surrounded by a high wall and guarded by a dragon named Ladon, whose many heads spoke simultaneously in a babel of tongues. The grove was located in some far western land in the mountains named for Atlas. Heracles retrieved the apples as one of his Labors. Ch 8-10 Question of the Day • (rip tide is found in passes or channels, rip currents the surf zone) is a strong What doesinChiron giveortoripPercy and tells flow of water seaward What is himsurface only to use it in returning emergencies? from near the shore. it disguised as? • He gives him a sword. It’s Greek name is “Anaklusmos,” but translated it means “riptide.” It was disguised as a pen, but when you take the cap the pen grows into a sword. Word of the Day Ch 8-10 • Prophecies • Page 140: I heard a voice slithering into my ear. I am the spirit of Delphi, speaker of the prophecies of Phoebus Apollo,slayer of the mighty python. Approach, seeker, and ask. • Meaning: prediction of future events that are believed to reveal the will of a god. • Root word: prophecy • Other ending: prophesize, prophesized • Mnemonic: The Oracle of Apollo • Apollo hunted down the python that had chased his mother. He killed it at Delphi and a huge temple was built to him there. He gave his priestesses the gift of telling the future. Their prophecies, or Oracles, were famous throughout Greece. Ch 8-10 Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What sort of creature tried to attack young Percy when he was taking a nap in daycare? What would you have done if you were his mom? Chiron says the United States eagle is actually a symbol of who? What do you think the United States symbol should be? Why? The half-bloods learn of their talents based on their fathers or mothers. If you were forced to decide right now what career you would choose? What skills would make you good at that career? What is a career you would definitely not choose? When you find out Percy’s true identity, are you surprised or did you see it coming? What clues were given earlier in the book? What is his true identity? Why does Percy feel miserable once he gets his own cabin? Would you? Why? How do you think the Oracle’s prophecy will come true for Percy? How will he be betray by a friend? What does it mean: “he will fail to save what matters most in the end”? Many of the campers at Camp Half-Blood have their own magic item. Clarisse has an electric spear. Annabeth has a baseball cap that turns her invisible. What magic item would make sense for Percy, as the son of the Sea God? Explain. Greek to me… • Poseidon • The division of the world by Zeus, Poseidon and Hades • Artemis • Apollo Slays the Python • The Oracle at Delphi • How the City of Athens got its Name • The Gorgons • Perseus and Medusa Poseidon… • • • Poseidon was the god of the sea, earthquakes and horses. Although he was officially one of the supreme gods of Mount Olympus, he spent most of his time in his watery domain. Poseidon was brother to Zeus and Hades. These three gods divided up creation. Zeus became ruler of the sky, Hades got dominion of the Underworld and Poseidon was given all water, both fresh and salt. Although there were various rivers personified as gods, these would have been technically under Poseidon's sway. Poseidon had married Nereus's daughter, the sea-nymph Amphitrite Symbol: Trident and Horse Artemis The Awesome Huntress • Artemis is the twin sister of Apollo. She is the goddess of hunting, archery, wild places, wild animals, childbirth and rites of passage. She operates on the borders, taming the wild. • Symbol: She-Bear Apollo slays the python • • • • • The god of Music, medicine, poetry, archery, bachelors Like most of his fellow Olympians, Apollo did not hesitate to intervene in human affairs. Of all the heroes besieging the city of Troy in the Trojan War When someone died suddenly, he was said to have been struck down by one of Apollo's arrows. Homer's epic of the Trojan War begins with the god causing a plague by raining arrows down upon the Greek camp. As god of music, Apollo is often depicted playing the lyre. He did not invent this instrument, however, but was given it by Hermes in compensation for cattle theft. Some say that Apollo did invent the lute, although he was best known for his skill on the lyre Symbol: Lyre (See myth about slaying the python) Oracle of Delphi 1. You shall go west and face the god who has • turned. The answer given by god to a question 2. You shallafind what was stolen and asked by a mortal. Or see it safely returned. http://www.abc.net. au/arts/wingedsand als/oracle/ the place where the 3. You shall be betrayed by one who answer was given. calls you friend. Or the human agent 4. You shallconveying fail to save what matters the divine most, in the end. response. • What 4 things does the Oracle predict for Who do you think will betray Percy? Percy? (page 141) What matters most that Percy will fail to save? Gorgons • Monstrous sisters with snakes for hair, tusks like boars and lolling tongues. The only mortal one of the three was Medusa. She had the power of turning to stone whoever looked at her, or wHomever she looked at (the myth can be interpreted both ways). The hero Perseus, defending his mother from the unwanted advances of King Polydectes of Seriphos, swore to bring him Medusa's head. Ch 11-14 Question of the Day • What does Madusa plan to do with Percy, Grover and Annabeth and how? Why is she angry at Annabeth? • If they look directly at her face, they will turn into statues. She seeks revenge because, Annabeth’s mom (Athena) turned her into a gorgon when she caught her with Poseidon in Athena’s temple. Ch 11-14 Word of the Day • Fatal • Page 209: Riptide was now a shining bronze blade in my hands, and as the Chimara turned, I slashed at its neck. That was my fatal mistake. The blade sparked harmlessly off the dog collar. I tried to regain my balance, but I was so worried about defending myself against the fiery lion’s mouth, I completely forgot about the serpent tail until it whipped around and sank its fangs into my calf. • Meaning: causing destruction or ruin • Root word: fate • Other endings: None • Mnemonic: It was his fate to eat all the poison on the plate. Ch 11-14 Discussion Questions 1. What important information does Percy find in Medusa’s office? 2. Why do you think Percy sends Medusa’s head to Mount Olympus? Do you think this is a good idea? 3. What is Grover’s dream? Why does it sound so hopeless to Percy? Does it to you? Explain. 4. Who do you think is talking to Percy in the dream? Who is the voice in the pit? 5. If you were offered the choice in Percy’s dream – to save your own parent’s life or complete your quest and prevent a terrible war – what would you choose? Why? 6. When battling Echidna and the Chimera, why does Percy decide he has no choice but to jump? What would you have done in his place? 7. When he lands in the Mississippi River, what does Percy realize that amazes him? 8. Why does Percy feel ashamed that Poseidon saved him? Explain. 9. What message does the woman in the water bring to Percy? What is her warning? Who do you think she is? Perseus and Medusa • The sole mortal of the monstrous Gorgons, slain by Perseus. The fact that the hero used a reflective shield given him by Athena to avoid looking directly at Medusa suggests that the Gorgon had the power of turning to stone whoever looked upon her. But most versions of the myth put it that she turned to stone whoever she looked upon. This was not an issue for Perseus, since Medusa was asleep when he chopped off her head Geek to Greek 101 Chimera Chimaera (kye-MEE-ruh). Firebreathing monster slain by the hero Bellerophon; related to Cerberus and the Hydra. The Chimaera was part lion, part goat and part snake, although accounts differed as to how these parts were assembled. King Iobates of Lycia sent Bellerophon after the beast in the expectation that the hero would never return. But with the help of the gods and the flying horse Pegasus, Bellerophon rid Lycia of its multiple monster. Pan • The god of of shepherds and flocks, son of Hermes and a nymph. Pan was born with the legs and horns of a goat. Pan was considered to be the cause of the sudden fear that sometimes comes for no reason, especially in lonely places. That's why it's called "panic". • The Nemean Lion • Preternatural beast with an impenetrable pelt, nevertheless vanquished and carried to Mycenae by Heracles as one of his Labors. These Labors were assigned Heracles by his cousin Eurystheus, who hid in a storage jar when he saw the great hero coming with the lion on his shoulder. Hercules battling the Nemean Lion Echidna • The mate of the horrible monster Typhon, Echidna was half-woman, halfserpent. She had many monstrous children, which Zeus allowed to live as a challenge to future heroes. Her offspring included Cerberus, the Nemean Lion and the Chimera. Typhon • Typhon is the offspring of Gaia and Tartarus. His mate is Echidna. Hissing like a hundred snakes and roaring like a hundred lions, he tore up whole mountains and threw them at the gods. Bellerophon Was a hero and the gods came to his aid, suggesting that a lump of lead affixed to the end of his spear would have a decidedly deadly effect. on the chimera when thrust into the monster's maw, it would cause it to gag. And when melted by the beast's fiery breath, it would trickle down into its innards and cause a fatal case of heartburn. Ch 15-17 Question of the Day • What is Iris messaging and how does it work? • The rainbow goddess, Iris, carries messages for the gods. You create a rainbow (they used water from the car wash) and throw a drachma into it. Then you can speak and talk to someone in the rainbow-puddle. Ch 15-17 Word of the Day Aunt Lee, I don’t Reluctantly want to do this, P. 243: I gritted my teeth. was probably a deadly insult to but ItI must!! refuse something from a god, but I didn’t want anything that Ares had touched. Reluctantly, I slung the backpack over my shoulder. I knew my anger was being caused by the war god’s presence, but I was still itching to punch him in the nose. Meaning: not eager; showing no willingness to do something. Root word: reluctant Other endings: None Mnemonic: He reluctantly carried lucky Aunt Lee. Ch 15-17 Discussion Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Annabeth says, “Even strength has to bow to wisdom.” Do you think that’s true? Would you rather be exceptionally strong or exceptionally wise? Luke says: “Tell Grover it’ll be better this time! Nobody will get turned into a pine tree . . .” What does this tell you about Grover’s past? When they are trapped in the pool whom do you think Percy is angrier with –Hephaestus or Ares? Why? What’s in the backpack Ares gives Percy? If you were him, would you have accepted this gift? Explain. Percy’s dream has three different parts – what does he see in each scene? What do the scenes mean? (page 252) How does Percy snap Annabeth out of her trance at the casino? Why does this frighten her? What does Nereid the spirit of the sea (p 271) give to Percy? How do you think it will help him on his quest? How does Percy trick Crusty (Procrustes)? What would you have done? How does Percy find the address for the Underworld? Do you think it’s a trap? Why? Arachne and the Weaving Contest • She was an arrogant girl from the Greek town of Kolophon in Lydia who once dared challenge the goddess Athena to a contest in weaving. In the match Athena portrayed the gods seated in glory upon high thrones, while Arachne represented them in the guise of animals chasing after mortal girls. Athena was furious at her and transformed her into a spider (Greek arakhnês). Arachnephobia: Fear of spiders Ares and Aprhodite • Aphrodite was the goddess of love and beauty. The gods and humans were always falling for her, because she was so pretty. Ares was one of her suitors and it angered Athena when they met in her temple!! Aphrodite was married to Hephaestus, the homely craftsmangod, who sought revenge on the couple. The Land of the Lotus Eaters… • On his way back from the Trojan War,Odysseus encountered the Land ofthe Lotus Eaters, where the inhabitants lived in perfect contentment doing nothing but eating lotuses all day. This lazy lifestyle was dangerous because it tempted Odysseus’ sailors to forget about their journey and remain on the island. How is this like the Wizard of Oz? Procrustes… • Name means "he who stretches.”He kept a house by the side of the road where he offered hospitality to passing strangers, who were invited in for a pleasant meal and a night's rest in his very special bed. Procrustes described it as having the unique property that its length exactly matched whomsoever lay down upon it. What Procrustes didn't volunteer was the method by which this "one-size-fits-all" was achieved, namely as soon as the guest lay down Procrustes went to work upon, stretching him on the rack if he was too short for the bed and chopping off his legs if he was too long. Theseus turned the tables on Procrustes, fatally adjusting him to fit his own bed The Trojan War… • in Greek mythology, war between the Greeks and the people of Troy. The strife began after the Trojan prince Paris abducted Helen, wife of Menelaus of Sparta. When Menelaus demanded her return, the Trojans refused. Menelaus then persuaded his brother Agamemnon to lead an army against Troy. At Aulis, troopships gathered, led by the greatest Greek heroes— Achilles, Patroclus, Diomed, Odysseus, Nestor, and the two warriors named Ajax. In order to win favorable winds for the journey, Agamemnon sacrificed his daughter Iphigenia to Artemis. The winds came and the fleet set sail for Troy. For nine years the Greeks ravaged Troy's surrounding cities and countryside, but the city itself, well fortified and commanded by Hector and other sons of the royal household, held out. Finally the Greeks built a large hollow wooden horse in which a small group of warriors were concealed. The other Greeks appeared to sail for home, leaving behind only the horse and Sinon, who deceitfully persuaded the Trojans, despite the warnings of Cassandra and Laocoön, to take the horse within the city walls. At night the Greeks returned; their companions crept out of the horse and opened the city gates, and Troy was destroyed. Ch 18-20 Question of the Day • How does Annabeth save them from Cerebus? • She plays fetch with a red rubber ball and distracts him from attacking them as they walk by. Play Rock-a-bye Cerebus: Click here Ch 18-20 Word of the Day… • Mournful • P. 298: Grover murmmured, “Well, Percy, what have we learned today?” • “That 3-headed dogs prefer red rubber balls over sticks?” • “No, what we’ve learned is your plan really bites!” • I wasn’t sure about that. I thought mayber Annabeth and I had both had the right idea. Even here in the Underworld, everybody—even monsters—needed a little attention once in a while. I pretended not to see Annabeth wipe a tear from her cheek as she listened to the mournful keening of Cerebus in the distance longing for his new friend. • Meaning: Expressing or feeling deep sadness • Root word: mourn • Other endings: mournfulness, mourning, mourner • Mnemonic: This morning we were out of cereal, which made me mournful. Ch 18-20 Discussion Questions… 1. What does Percy realize about monsters at the end of the chapter? Do you feel sorry for Cerberus? Would you have risked playing fetch with him, if you were Annabeth? Why? 2. Grover says: “Most people, well, they just lived. Nothing special, good or bad.” Do you think this is true? Do think people are good by nature, or bad, or just neutral? Explain. 3. Who is the most evil person you can think of – from history or from current times? What makes this person evil? Can an evil person ever have good qualities? Explain. 4. Why was Percy’s backpack getting heavy? How do you feel about Ares? 5. What terrible choice faces Percy when he decides to use the pearls? Would you have made the same choice he does? Why or why not? 6. Ares says the best kind of war is when relatives fight each. Why would this be the most vicious kind of fight? Explain. 7. Which failures does Ares point to when he says Percy “doesn’t have what it takes”? Is this a fair criticism? Why or why not? 8. How does Percy’s ADHD keep him alive in the fight? Explain. 9. Why is important that the Furies witness Percy’s battle? 10. At the end of the chapter, what does Percy decide he must do to complete the quest? Draw a map of the Underworld based on the description in the book. Then check out Grover’s Orpheus • Minstrel whose music was so sweet trees would uproot themselves to follow in his footsteps. Charming Charon and Cerberus (he lulled it to sleep by playing his lyre), he attempted to rescue his wife Eurydice from Hades. He saved the Argonauts from the Sirens Hercules and Cerebus… • The final labor of Hercules (a hero, not a god) was to bring the 3-headed watchdog of the underworld, Cerberus, to the surface without using any weapons; Hercules seized two of Cerberus' heads and the dog gave in. <> Charon • Charon the Boatman. Charon wouldn't take anyone across the River Styx unless they met 2 conditions• Pay a bribe in the form of a coin under the tongue. • they had to be dead Persephone • Beautiful daughter of Zeus and Demeter; sometimes considered an Olympian. While gathering flowers in a field one day, Persephone was abducted to the Underworld by Hades, who arose in his chariot from a fissure in the ground. Demeter, goddess of the harvest, was heartbroken, and while she wandered the length and breadth of the earth in search of her daughter, the crops withered and it became perpetual winter. At length Hades was persuaded to surrender Persephone for one half of every year, the spring and summer seasons when flowers bloom and the earth bears fruit once more. The half year that Persephone spends in the Underworld as Hades' queen coincides with the barren season. The heroes Peirithous and Theseus attempted to abduct Persephone and bring her back to the land of the living. Chapter 21 & 22 Question of the Day… • What is unique about Luke’s backbiter sword? • It can slay mortals and immortals since one side is celestial bronze and the other side is steel. Ch 21 & 22 Word of the Day • Disarmed • P 367: “I got overconfident. Zeus sent out his sons and daughters to find the stolen bolt—Artemis, Apollo, my father, Hermes. But is was Ares who caught me. I could have beaten him, but I wasn’t careful enough. He disarmed me, took the items of power, threatened to return them to Olympus and burn me alive. • Meaning: To give up weapons or win someone over • Root word: Disarm • Other endings: disarming, disarmer, disarmed, disarms • Mnemonic: I took the weapon from his arms. Ch 21 & 22 Discussion Questions… Which would rather have – a parent who is distant and doesn’t show much emotion, or a parent who very affectionate and shows a lot of emotion? Why? Could there be disadvantages to both? 2. Who was speaking from the pit? Why do think Zeus doesn’t want to talk about it? 3. How do you think Poseidon feels about Percy? How can you tell? 4. Imagine Percy has to write a letter to his father, Poseidon, explaining the choice he made not to petrify Gabe. What would he say? How would he explain his choice? Would he want to tell his father anything else? Any wishes or requests? 5. If someone knew something really bad that was going to happen in your life, and there was nothing you could do about it, would you rather have them tell you or keep it a secret? Why? 6. Why do you think Percy has so much trouble deciding whether to stay year round or go to seventh grade? What would you choose? Why? 7. Luke says, “Western Civilization is a disease.” What do you think he means by that? Do you agree? 8. What turned Luke so bitter? 9. How did Annabeth take Percy’s advice? Do you think it will work out for her? Why or why not? 1.