Psychology Research Methods

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Psychology Research
Methods
Tuesday: Bring Headphones!!
Sample
 The small group of participants, out of
the total number available that a
researcher studies.
Naturalistic Observation
 Method in which psychologists observe
the subject in a natural setting without
interfering.
 Examples : Jane Goodall
Case Study
 Method that involves an intensive
investigation of one or more participants.
 Example: Freud
Surveys
 Method in which information is obtained
by asking many individuals a set of fixed
questions.
 Example: Voting
Projections
Longitudinal Study
 Method in which data is collected about
a group of participants over a number of
years to assess how certain
characteristics change or remain the
same during development.
 Example : Mr. Hannah follows you to
college
Cross-Sectional Studies
 Method in which data is collected from
groups or participants of different ages
and compared so that conclusions can
be drawn about such differences due to
age.
 Tracking learning abilities at different
ages.
Experimentation
 Researcher controls the situation to
analyze samples.
 Example : Creating a simulation of a
fight to test the bystander theory.
Some
Experimentation
Terms
Self-fulfilling prophesy
 Situation where a researcher’s
expectations influence the sample’s
behavior, making an inauthentic
experiment.
 Examples: Counting horse, Inkblots
Single-Blind Experiment
 Experiment where
the participants
are unaware of
which participants
received the
treatment.
 Example: Milgram
Experiment
Double-Blind Experiment
 An experiment which neither the
experimenters nor the participants know
which participants received the
treatment.
 How could this be more authentic than a
single blind experiment?
Placebo Effect
 A change in a participant’s illness or
behavior that results from a belief that
the treatment will have an effect, rather
than the actual treatment.
Reflection
 Which research method do you think is
best? (naturalistic observation, survey,
case study, experiment, longitudinal,
cross-sectional)
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