Ch. 3 Minerals Study Guide Name: Get signed for BONUS POINTS: _____________________ 1. Describes minerals: (4properties) 2. What are the important factors in the formation of minerals? 3. On Mohs' hardness scale, what minerals are harder than quartz? 4. A mineral's streak is _______________________________________. 5. Halite is a(n) ____________________ of sodium and chlorine. 6. The two most common elements in the Earth's crust are __________________________ 7. _________________________ minerals make up less than ten percent of the Earth's crust. 8. When quartz breaks it forms a curved pattern called __________________________. 9. __________________ minerals are the most common silicate mineral group in the Earth's crust. 10. ________________ minerals contain the elements silicon and oxygen along with aluminum, potassium, sodium, and calcium. 11. NaCl is the chemical formula for which of the minerals? 12. You are out for a walk and find a piece of granite. The dark crystals scattered throughout the granite are most likely ___________________________. 13. List the types of surface mines. 14. Gold, silver, and copper are all examples of __________________________. 15. Non-silicate minerals do not contain __________________ and ______________________. 16. What terms can be used to describe the nonmetallic luster of a mineral? 17. Minerals that contain combinations of carbon and oxygen in their chemical structure are called _______________. 18. _______________________ are compounds that form when an element, such as aluminum or iron, combines chemically with oxygen. 19. ________________________ are compounds that form when atoms of the elements fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), iodine (I), or bromine (Br) combine with sodium (Na), potassium (K), or calcium (Ca). 20. A body of magma that has cooled and solidified before reaching the surface is called ________________________. 21. List the types of deep (subsurface) mines. 22. In which environment are small crystals formed due to slow cooling of hot magma beneath Earth's crust? 23. If the atoms of a substance are arranged in a specific, repetitive pattern, the substance is _______________.