Kines 303

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BPK 303
Kinanthropometry
Fall 2014
Instructor: Dr. Richard Ward
email: [email protected]
Kinanthropometry
 The quantification of Body Size, Shape,
Proportion and Composition to describe or
explain Function, Growth, Maturation and
Performance.
 Defined by William D. (Bill) Ross in the
1970’s to to bring together scientists who
appeared to be working in quite disparate
areas but whose studies had tremendous
relevance to each other.
2
International Society for the
Advancement of Kinanthropometry
(ISAK) website home page
www.isakonline.com
3
Anthropometry
Simple but expensive equipment
Anthropometer $1400
Harpenden Skinfold Caliper
> $200
4
Anthropometry
Inexpensive Alternatives
Woodworkers Tape with Pencil
Holder
$16
Slim Guide Skinfold Caliper
$35
5
Standardized Techniques
Anthropometric Conventions
 I.S.A.K. - International Society for the
Advancement of Kinanthropometry
 I.B.P. - Internationl Biological Programme
In House Standardization
• Do not trust the name of the measurement
• Check the original description
6
Anthropometry
 Standardized techniques
 valid
calibration
 reliable
measurement error
objectivity
7
Which Variables to Measure?
 Comprehensive
 Do not reduce the number of measures
just to save time
 Specific
 Tailor the data collection to the
hypothesis
8
Landmarking
 Reference to bone landmarks
 Skin moves relative to the bone so that the pose of the
subject is important
Horizontal lines
Not crosses or dots
Professional Approach




Informed Consent
Training increases validity & confidence
Honour subject’s personal space
Take adequate measures to minimize error




Recorder
Data Sheet
Data Transmission
Legible Recording
10
Lab Reports




2 Lab Reports
Lab Report 1 10%
Lab Report 2 20%
Calculation and interpretation from
individual and group data
 Must be written in required format
11
BPK303
Anthropometry
Fall 2014
12
Anthropometric Measures Fall 2014
Data Sheet 1
Stretch Stature (cm)
Weight (kg)
Skinfolds (mm)
Triceps
Subscapular
Biceps
Forearm
Iliac Crest
Supraspinale
Abdominal
Front Thigh
Medial Calf
Data Sheet 2
Bone Widths (cm)
Humerus
Femur
Girths (cm)
Head
Neck
Arm (relaxed)
Arm (flexed)
Forearm (max.)
Wrist
Chest
Waist
Gluteal
Thigh
Calf
Ankle
Data Sheet 3
Projected Heights (cm)
Sitting Height
Ilio-Spinale
Trochanterion
Tibiale Laterale
Direct Lengths (cm)
Upper Arm (Ac – Rad)
Forearm (Rad – Sty)
Hand (MidSty – Dac)
Tibial (Tib Med – Sphy)
Foot
Breadths (cm)
A.P. Chest Depth
Transverse Chest
Biacromial Breadth
Biiliocristal Breadth
13Spring 2008
Anthropometric Equipment
14Spring 2008
Anthropometry
Landmarks must be
short horizontal lines


Landmarking necessary for
repeatability of measures
Only a few landmarks are
required for the measures used
in this course
Standard Landmarking &
Measurement Position
15Spring 2008
Stretch Stature (Height)





Head held in Frankfort Plane
Requires two people to measure
Feet together
Stretch justified as overcoming
diurnal variation
Check for heel lifting (especially in
children)
16Spring 2008
Variability of
Height
 Height can vary
up to 2.5cm a day
or more
 Compression of
the intervertebral
discs occurs
 Lost height can
be restored with
fetal curls
17Spring 2008
Weight




Fluctuation
Calibrated scale
Beam balances tend to hold calibration longer
OMRON Scale and Body Composition Analyzer
18Spring 2008
Skinfolds
 Parallel fold of double thickness
of skin plus subcutaneous
adipose tissue
 Caliper applied perpendicular to
the fold
 Fold held firmly by left hand while
full pressure is applied by caliper
 2 second timing until reading
 Skinfolds can be measured at any
site where there is a loose
junction between subcutaneous
adipose tissue and the underlying
fascia.
19Spring 2008
Skinfold Calipers
 Slim Guide
 Caliper Pressure?
Harpenden
Spring Tension / Jaw Surface Area
 Harpenden
10 gm.mm-2
 Lange
35 gm.mm-2
 Slim Guide
Slim Guide
Lange
11.4 gm.mm-2
Fatometer
20Spring 2008
Adipometer
Skinfold Calipers
Harpenden
Precision greater
than necessary.
Delicate
Stays calibrated
for a long time
Expensive
> $200
GOLD
STANDARD
Lange
SlimGuide
Small jaw surfaces
that pivot
ABS Plastic
Robust
Calibration
wanders
Expensive
> $150
Stays calibrated
for a long time
Inexpensive
$35
FatoMeter
Plastic
Fragile
Parallel jaw
surfaces
Weak Springs
Inexpemsive
< $20
Adipometer
Single piece of
molded plastic
Uses elastic
properties of
plastic to exert
constant tension
It Works!
< $10
21Spring 2008
Skinfold Descriptions
Subscapular Skinfold
the caliper distance when applied
one centimeter distally from the left
thumb and index finger raising a fold
beneath the inferior angle of the
scapula in a direction running
obliquely downwards at an angle
determined by the natural lines of
tension in the skin. The pick up can
be made consistent by placing the
little finger of the left hand on the
angle of the scapula then placing the
index finger just to the right of it and
the thumb just below it.
Site
Technique
Girths
 Circumference
perpendicular to the long
axis of the body segment
 Tape should be touching
but not indenting skin
 Cross-handed technique
23Spring 2008
Compressive Clothing Effect
GIRTHS
Slim
Top
Bra
Nude
Sports Bra
Swim
Suit
Chest (meso)
97.6
98.0
-
99.3
98.2
Chest (max)
97.5
98.9
95.6
96.8
97.5
2 cm could be 10 – 15% point shift in percentile rating
GIRTHS
Gluteal
Yoga
Pants
103.4
Underwear
Fitted
Shorts
Compression
Shorts
Swim
Suit
Loose
Shorts
104.2
102.1
101.5
102.0
105.6
4 cm could be 20 – 30% point shift in percentile rating
Thigh
62.1
63.0
60.3
62.0
-
-
2.5 cm could be 15 - 20% point shift in percentile24Spring
rating2008
Projected Heights
 Perpendicular
distance from floor to
landmark
 Tibiale Height usually
measured standing
although sometimes
used seated for
disabled populations.
 Derived length =
difference between
two projected heights
25Spring 2008
Direct Lengths
 From landmark to landmark
26Spring 2008
Bone Widths & Breadths
 Caliper type and placement specific to measurement
 Press firmly while measurement is made
 Vernier Scale
27Spring 2008
Validity & Reliability
Unreliable
Not Valid
Unreliable
Valid?
Reliable
Not Valid
Reliable
Valid
28Spring 2008
Measurement Reliability
 How do you quantify reliability?
 Is a correlation coefficient
adequate?
 Technical Error of Measurement?
29Spring 2008
Correlation Coefficient: Poor indicator of reliability
r = > 0.9
Trial 2
 A high correlation
between trials does not
necessarily indicate
reliability unless slope
is 1 and intercept is 0.
 Means of trials 1 and 2
would be different.
Paired t-test with no
sig. diff. between
means with a high
correlation would show
high reliability. But this
would be clumsy
analysis.
Line of Identity
Trial 1
30Spring 2008
Technical Error of Measurement
Measure of variability between two trials
I
7.5
15.0
12.5
13.0
32.0
4.5
II
8.0
15.5
12.5
12.9
35.0
4.5
d
d2
+0.5
.25
+0.5
.25
0
0
-0.1
.01
+3.0
9
0
0
Sum d2
9.51
TEM 0.81mm
TEM 
 diff
2n
2
31Spring 2008
% TEM
 To compare the relative reliabilities of measures using
different units such as height and weight, a %TEM is
used.
 %TEM is the absolute TEM divided by the mean of the
measurements multiplied by 100.
 A dimensionless score that can be compared across
measurements.
 Also for same measurement when size is an issue
32Spring 2008
% Technical Error of Measurement
I
7.5
II
8
d
0.5
d2
0.25
15
12.5
15.5
12.5
0.5
0
0.25
0
13
32
4.5
12.9
35
4.5
-0.1
3
0
0.01
9
0
Sum d2
9.51
TEM
0.89
%TEM
6.18
Mean
14.41
% TEM  (TEM / M ean )100
33Spring 2008
Typical Skinfold %TEMs
Skinfold
Triceps
Subscapular
Biceps
Iliac Crest
Supraspinale
Abdominal
Front Thigh
Medial Calf
Male
3.0
3.6
2.3
6.2
3.4
6.2
4.7
2.8
Female
4.0
3.6
2.9
8.3
4.0
8.7
6.4
4.5
34Spring 2008
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